Literature


- 𑐬𑐾𑐏𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐩𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑐣𑐾 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐶... 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑅 𑐟𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋
    – 𑐬𑐾𑐏𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐩𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑐣𑐾 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐶… 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑅 𑐟𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 𑐠𑑁𑑄 𑐫𑑅𑐩𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐶 𑐥𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐶…𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐾𑑃𑐫𑑂 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐏𑑅 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐟𑐎𑑄 𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐹 𑐩𑐏𑐵𑑅 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐢𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑑋 𑐟𑐟𑐵𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑅 𑐦𑐳𑐫𑑂 𑐟𑐸𑑄 𑐟𑐣𑐵𑐰𑐣, 𑐩𑐵𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑅 𑐖𑐶𑑄 𑐩𑐟𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐥𑐮𑐏𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑑀𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐗𑐵𑑅𑐩𑑂𑐴 𑐩𑐵𑑄𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐏𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵 𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑑂𑐴𑐸𑐟𑐸𑐳𑐶𑑄 𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐸𑐴𑑃 𑐢𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐔𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐮 […]

𑐩𑐵𑐠𑑄 𑐩𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐥𑐹


𑐳𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐶𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐦𑐳𑐫𑑂‌ “ 𑐟𑐵𑐏𑑀𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄”𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑅
𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐔𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐫𑑂‌ ‘𑐟𑐵𑐏𑑀𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄 𑐟𑐵𑐟𑐵𑐏𑑀𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄’ 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂‌ 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐵 𑐎𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐰 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐴𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑑅 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐄𑐎𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾𑑄 ‘𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐹𑐮’𑐫𑑂‌ 𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸, ‘𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂‌’ 𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐏𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐂𑐩𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐟𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐂𑐩𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐳𑐶𑐮 ‘𑐟𑐵𑐏𑑀𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄 𑐟𑐵𑐟𑐵𑐏𑑀𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄’ 𑐮𑐵 𑐕𑐟𑐵𑐖𑐶 ‘𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣 […]

𑐳𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐶𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐦𑐳𑐫𑑂‌ “ 𑐟𑐵𑐏𑑀𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄”𑐫𑐵 ...


Bibliography of Nepalbhasa Dictionaries
  This is a bibliography I prepared on Nepalbhasa dictionaries (dictionaries of Newar language words). I’ve only included the materials published as books, and have not included materials published as articles. Likewise, I have neither included any ancient manuscripts nor any idioms/phrasebooks. I would like to express my sincere gratitude […]

Bibliography of Nepalbhasa Dictionaries



𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐰𑐶 𑐐𑐶𑐬𑐶𑐖𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐡 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐮𑑀𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣
𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐰𑐶 𑐐𑐶𑐬𑐶𑐖𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐡 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑑄 𑑘𑑔 𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐳𑐟𑐵𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐐𑐶𑐬𑐶𑐖𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐮𑑀𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹’ 𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐧𑑂𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋  𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐰𑐶 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑑄 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐷𑐰𑐣𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑐷𑐠𑐷 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐩𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐮𑑀𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐴 ‘𑐐𑐶𑐬𑐶𑐖𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐮𑑀𑐔𑐣𑐵’ 𑐣𑐵𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐣𑐶𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑐎𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐠𑐸𑐂 𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐧𑑂𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐳𑐎𑑂𑐰 𑐎𑐺𑐲𑐶 𑐦𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐫𑑂 𑐦𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐔𑐵𑐮𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐳𑐾𑐰𑐷 𑐃. 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐡𑐵𑐳 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐨𑐵𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐫𑑂 […]

𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐰𑐶 𑐐𑐶𑐬𑐶𑐖𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐡 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐮𑑀𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹


𑐣𑐷𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐶𑐢 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐣 𑐎𑑂𑐰𑐔𑐵𑐮
𑐣𑐷𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐶𑐢 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐣 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐸𑐬 𑐠𑐶𑐩𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐣𑐣𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑑄𑐐𑐮𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐮𑐾𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐩𑐖𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐎𑐶𑐳𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐚𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐫𑑅 𑐣𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐞𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐧𑐶𑐖𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐕𑐾𑑃 𑐬𑑀𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐐𑐶𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐩𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐴𑐵𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐖𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐕𑐾𑑄 𑐩𑑄𑐳𑐶𑐬 𑑔 𑐐𑐟𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑐐𑐛𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐣𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐮 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐡𑐾𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐡𑐂𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐁𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐬𑐵𑐃 𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟 𑑕𑑒 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐱𑐟𑑄 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎 […]

𑐣𑐷𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐶𑐢 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐣 ...


𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐳𑐷 𑐱𑑄𑐏𑐢𑐬 𑐡𑐶𑐰𑐳 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐴𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸
𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐟 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐹𑐡𑑃 𑐬𑐵𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐬𑑀𑐴 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑑑𑑑𑑔𑑓 𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐰 𑐂𑐣𑐵𑐥𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐳𑐷 𑐱𑑄𑐏𑐢𑐬 𑐡𑐶𑐰𑐳 𑐫𑐾𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐴𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐎𑐕𑐮𑐵𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐡𑐱𑐩𑐶 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐎 𑑑𑑗 𑐐𑐟𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐣𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐬𑑀𑐴 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶𑑄 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐵𑐣𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑐸𑐠𑐫𑑂 𑑗 𑐧𑐖𑐾 𑐮𑐏𑐸𑐬𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐠 𑐰 𑐴𑐶𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑑔 𑐧𑐖𑐾 𑐨𑑀𑐟𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑐱𑐏𑐢𑐬 𑐄𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 […]

𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐳𑐷 𑐱𑑄𑐏𑐢𑐬 𑐡𑐶𑐰𑐳 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐴𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸



𑐩𑐵𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐡𑐶𑐰𑐳
–𑐰𑐶𑐣𑐫 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑑀𑐥𑐵𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫 – 𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐰𑐵 / 𑐊𑐦.𑐊𑐩. 𑐔𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐩𑐕𑐶 𑐳𑑂𑐚𑐾𑐱𑐣 𑐴𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐵, 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐣 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐟 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐶𑑄 𑐟𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐾 𑐩𑐦𑐸 𑑋 – 𑐚𑐶𑐨𑐷 𑐔𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐵, 𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐮𑐟 𑐴𑐶𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐴𑐶𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑄 𑐀𑐣 𑐣𑑄 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐟 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐶𑑄 𑐏𑑄𑐎𑐾 𑐩𑐦𑐸 𑑋 𑐧𑐬𑐸 𑐧𑐶𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐴𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑅÷𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐶𑐥𑐵𑑅÷𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐵 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐫𑑂 […]

𑐩𑐵𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐡𑐶𑐰𑐳


𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐳𑑄𑐑𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐱𑐣𑐶𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐰𑑄𑐱 𑐰 𑐗𑐶𑐐𑐹 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐶𑐥𑑂𑐟 𑐂𑐟𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐳’ 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐧𑑂𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐾 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐗𑐶𑐐𑐹 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐩𑑂𑐴 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐧𑐴𑐵𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐡𑑂𑐢𑐾𑐫 𑐩𑑀𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐰𑐶𑐬 𑐥𑐡𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐹𑐲𑐶𑐟 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐑𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐫𑑅 𑐱𑐸𑐨𑐎𑐵𑐖𑐷 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐨𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐮𑐾𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐵𑐴𑐵𑑄𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾𑑄 𑐧𑑀𑐢𑐶 𑐩𑐟 𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐑 […]

𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐰𑑄𑐱 𑐰 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐂𑐟𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐳 ...


Mona Eväluoto What is Ranjana Lipi The diverse culture of Nepal is home to many ethnic groups with over 100 various languages. In Nepal Mandal (the current Kathmandu Valley) from the 14th to 18th century, Nepal Bhasa was the official language but was replaced by Nepali after the Gorkha Kingdom […]

Ranjana Lipi: Efforts to revive ...



–𑐜𑐵. 𑐔𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐵 𑐧𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫 “𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐰𑐬𑑂𑐲 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵” 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐢𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐮𑐎𑑂𑐲𑑂𑐩𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑐹𑐖𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑑂𑐴𑐥𑐹𑐖𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐂𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑑅𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐾𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐮𑑅 𑐥𑑂𑐰𑐟𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐀𑐧𑐷𑐬, 𑐟𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐰𑐵, 𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐩𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵, 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐩𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐁𑐏𑐾, 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐔𑐶𑐎𑑄𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑅 𑐠𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐮𑑅 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐰𑐟𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐵 𑐀𑐧𑐷𑐬𑑄 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐄𑐎𑐶 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐣𑐾 𑐟𑑅𑐳𑐶, 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐳𑐶𑑄, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶, […]

𑐮𑐎𑑂𑐲𑑂𑐩𑐷𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑅 𑐥𑐹𑐖𑐵


𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐾 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐾 𑐖𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐵𑐖𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑑄 𑐰𑐣𑐷𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐧𑐵𑐖𑑄 𑐐𑐸𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐳𑑄 𑐀𑐣 𑐧𑐵𑐖𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐵 𑐰𑐫𑐾 𑐦𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐧𑐵𑐖𑑄 𑐐𑐸𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐟 𑐧𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐩𑑂𑐴𑐶𑐐𑑅 𑐎𑑂𑐰𑐔𑐵𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐡𑐾𑐫𑑂 𑐡𑐧𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐴𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑐵𑐳𑑅 𑐳𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐚𑐶 𑐎𑐮𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐶 𑐡𑐧𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐸𑐫𑑄𑐎𑑄 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐟𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐩 𑐧𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐁𑐡𑐬𑑂𑐱 𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐸𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐟𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐷𑐩𑑂𑐴 𑐳𑐴𑐨𑐵𑐐𑐷𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐟 […]

𑐁𑑅 𑐧𑐵𑐖𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐣𑑄 ...


𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐢𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑑁𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐷𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐡𑑃 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐄𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐶 𑐗𑐶𑑄𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐡𑑃 𑐰 𑐨𑐩𑑂𑐔𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑑂𑐴 𑐩𑐫𑑂𑐖𑐸 𑐗𑐶𑑄𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐡𑑃 𑐖𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋
𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐹𑐮 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐎𑐮𑐾𑐖 𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐰𑑄 𑐖𑐶 𑐂𑐴𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐢𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑑁𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐷𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐡𑑃 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐄𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐶 𑐗𑐶𑑄𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐡𑑃 𑐰 𑐨𑐩𑑂𑐔𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑑂𑐴 𑐩𑐫𑑂𑐖𑐸 𑐗𑐶𑑄𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐡𑑃 𑐖𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐄𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑐮𑐣𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐕𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐮𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐾𑑄 𑐔𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐾 𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐖𑐶 𑐰 𑐖𑐶𑐩𑐶 𑐎𑐾𑐴𑐾𑑃𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐖𑐶𑐩𑐶 𑐣𑐶𑐩𑑂𑐴 𑐎𑐎𑐵𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐂𑐴𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐨𑐩𑐔𑐵 […]

𑐂𑐴𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅



𑐰 𑐕𑐸 𑐐𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐷 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐕𑐸 𑐐𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐷 𑐩𑐏𑑃 𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐷 𑐬𑐾 𑐥𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐧𑐟𑐷 𑐩𑐿𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐵 𑐰𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐒𑑂𑐐𑐷 𑐳𑐶𑑄𑐩𑑂𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐷 𑐬𑐾 – 𑑒x 𑐐𑐵𑐔𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑐥𑐣𑑂𑐔 𑐬𑐒𑑂𑐐𑐷 𑐢𑐵𑐔𑐵 𑐕𑐒𑐸 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐷 𑐬𑐾 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾𑐂 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐾 𑐩𑐐𑐵 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐷 𑐕 𑐣𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑂𑐮𑐷 𑐬𑐾 – 𑑒x 𑐳𑑂𑐰 𑐠𑐾 𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐠𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐣𑑂𑐎 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐵𑐣𑐷 𑐬𑐾 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑑀𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐎𑐾 […]

𑐰 𑐕𑐸 𑐐𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐷 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐕𑐸 ...


𑐁𑐡𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐳𑐷 𑐖𑐣𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐳𑑄𑐑 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂𑐐𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑐐𑐛𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐸𑐢𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐠𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐟𑑀𑐁𑐎𑐷 𑐨𑐰𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐠𑐸𑐂 𑐁𑐡𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐳𑐷 𑐖𑐣𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐳𑑄𑐑𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑑂𑐫 𑐟𑐡𑐬𑑂𑐠 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐑𑑀𑐲𑐞𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑑂𑐫 𑐟𑐡𑐬𑑂𑐠 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐎 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐸𑐬𑐾𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐨𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐗𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐴𑐵𑑄𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐳𑑄𑐑𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐡𑐬𑑂𑐠 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐎 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐣 𑐩𑐸𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐸𑐒 𑐩𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐴𑐵𑑄𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐗𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 […]

𑐁𑐡𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐳𑐷 𑐖𑐣𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑑂𑐫 ...


𑐰𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐚 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐣 𑐐𑐸𑐠𑐶 (𑐰𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐚 𑐐𑐸𑐠𑐶)𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐳𑐷 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐕𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐚 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐗𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐐𑐡𑑂𑐫 𑐎𑐰𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐸𑐰𑐵 𑐩𑐡𑐸𑐩𑑂𑐴 𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂𑐞 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐀𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐫 𑐎𑑀𑐲 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑑁𑐮𑐵𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐡𑐱𑐎𑐶𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐸 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐡𑐸𑐩𑑂𑐴 𑐎𑐰𑐶 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐴𑐵𑐣 𑐩𑐶𑐬𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑄 𑐗𑐶𑐐𑐹 𑐮𑐏 𑐟𑐎𑐵 𑐡𑐵𑑄𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐰𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐚 𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂𑐞 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐶𑐬𑐥𑐵𑑅’𑐫𑐵 […]

𑐰𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐚 𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂𑐞 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐶𑐬𑐥𑐵𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑑄𑐟𑐶𑑄 ...