𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 ‘𑐫, 𑐫𑑂, 𑐫𑐾 𑐰 𑐊’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 (𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬)

𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛

𑐳𑐴𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑐎

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐐

(𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’, ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐰 ‘𑐊’ 𑐐𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫𑐳 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐎𑑂𑐬𑑂‍𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐊𑐩.𑐊. 𑐟𑐐𑐶𑐩𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐶𑐟 𑐎𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐬𑐸 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑘 𑐨𑐡𑑁 𑑔 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐳𑐟𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐐𑐊 𑐱𑐣𑐶𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 ‘𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷’𑐳 𑐳𑐴𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵 𑐜𑐵. 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑑄 ‘𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 ‘𑐫’, ‘𑐫𑑂’, ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐰 ‘𑐊’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞’ 𑐣𑐵𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑑁 𑐤𑐾𑐧𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐜𑐵. 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷, 𑐳𑐴𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚, 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐜𑐵 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐸𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣 𑐰 𑐜𑐵. 𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐾𑐱𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐳𑑄 𑐚𑐶𑐥𑑂𑐥𑐞𑐷 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐠𑐣 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐧𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐵 𑑋 𑐳𑑄.)

𑐩𑐹𑐟𑐶 (Abstract)

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐟𑑂 𑑒𑑘 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑄𑐎𑐵𑐰𑐟𑐵𑐬 𑐏𑑅𑑋 𑐊𑐎𑐰𑐶𑑄𑐱𑐟𑐶 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐁𑐏𑐮𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐊𑐎𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐴𑐊𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑓 𑐔𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐵 𑑒𑑖 (𑐟𑐕𑐮𑐵 𑑘 (𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑐𑑓𑑙𑑋𑑑𑑒𑑋𑑒𑑖–𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑐𑑋𑑓𑑋𑑐𑑔) 𑐟𑐎 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅𑑋 𑐠𑐵𑑄𑐿 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑑓𑑔 𑐡𑑃 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑑑𑑐𑐡𑑃 𑐡𑐂𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐊 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐷 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐣𑑅 𑐩𑐸𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐒𑑂𑐎𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐃 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐥𑐾𑐠𑐷 (𑐫, 𑐫𑐾, 𑐫𑑂, 𑐰 𑐊 ) 𑐣𑑄 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐊 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐹𑐮 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣𑐊 𑐫, 𑐫𑐾, 𑐫𑑂 𑐰 𑐊 𑐥𑐾𑑄𑐐𑑅 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐎 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐊 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐾𑐠𑐷 (𑐫, 𑐫𑐾, 𑐫𑑂, 𑐰 𑐊) 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑐮𑐷𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐰 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐫 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐿𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐰𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐡𑐿𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐷 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑙 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗 𑐟𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑑒𑑘 𑐪 𑐔𑑀𑐩𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑑕𑑐 𑐐𑐹 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐾𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐺𑐟 𑐖𑐵𑐣𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃) 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐊 𑐊–𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅, 𑐫𑑂–𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅, 𑐫–𑐀𑐖𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅, 𑐫𑐾 𑐰 𑐫𑑂–𑐄𑐨𑐫 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐾𑐕𑐶𑑄 𑑋 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐟 (𑑑) 𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫), (𑑒) 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟, (𑑓) 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐰 (𑑔) 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐾𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐀) 𑐰 (𑐁) 𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑑄𑐐𑑅 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐬𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑑄 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐰𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 ‘𑐊’𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐡𑐿𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐣 𑐠𑐣 𑐥𑐹𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎, 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟, 𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵, 𑐀𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐊 𑐦𑐿𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐷 𑐣𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐚𑐵𑐂𑐥 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟, 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐳𑐾 𑐖𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑐧𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐷𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟𑐳𑐾 𑐣𑑄 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐖𑐶𑐎 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐦𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐬𑐮 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐣 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋

𑐩𑐹𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀 M 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵, 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷, 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣, 𑐫, 𑐫𑐾, 𑐫𑑂 𑐰 𑐊, 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑑋

𑑑.𑑐 𑐪𑐳𑐷𑐎𑐵

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐐𑐧𑐮𑐾𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐟𑐎 𑐎𑑀𑐖𑐷𑐎 𑐢𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐮𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐞𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐟𑑂 𑑒𑑘 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑄𑐎𑐵𑐰𑐟𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐂𑐟𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐳 𑐥𑐶𑐴𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐰𑑅𑐣𑐶 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑐶𑐄 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐰𑐺𑐴𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐬 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐥𑑄. 𑐣𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡 𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑙 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐊𑐎𑐰𑐶𑑄𑐱𑐟𑐶 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐁𑐏𑐮𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐔𑐵 𑐣𑐷𑐕𑐥𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐱𑑂𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐰𑐵𑐡 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑐 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑔 𑐟𑐎 𑐥𑐾𑐡𑑃 𑐧𑐶𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐮𑐮𑐶𑐟𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐩𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑁𑑄 𑐳𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐶 𑐰 𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐡𑑃 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 (𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗) 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑐣𑐶, 𑐏𑐵𑐮𑐶 𑐐𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 (𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐰𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐫𑐵) 𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑐣 𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐫𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐶 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐀𑑄𑐱𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐶𑐡𑐵𑐳𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐶𑐡𑑃 𑐧𑐸𑐡𑐶𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐳𑐟𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑑀𑐨𑐾𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑑒𑑔, 𑑑𑑙𑑘𑑔 (𑐣𑐾𑐳 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑔𑐫𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐵𑑅 𑑑𑑔) 𑐏𑐸𑐤𑐸 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 𑐏𑐸𑐡𑑃 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐 𑐡𑑃𑐊 ‘𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐮𑐔𑑄’ 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐎𑑂𑐲 𑐰 𑐰𑐶𑐥𑐎𑑂𑐲 𑐣𑐶𑐏𑐮𑑅 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑑁𑑄 𑑓𑑓 𑐡𑑃 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑄 𑑒𑑗 𑐡𑑃 𑐡𑐊 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐳𑐾𑐰𑐵𑐊 𑐡𑐸𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑐣𑐶𑐰𑐺𑐟𑑂𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐟 𑑒𑑐𑐡𑑃 𑐡𑐊𑐰𑑄 𑐐𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐟𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐊 𑐖𑐷𑐰𑐶𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑑑𑑐 𑐡𑑃 𑐡𑐂𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐊 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐷 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐖𑐷𑐰𑐶𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐣𑑅𑐩𑐸𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐒𑑂𑐎𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐃 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐖𑐎 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐶 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐾 𑐦𑐂 𑑋

𑑑.𑑑 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐕𑐸 𑐏𑑅?

𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐀𑑅𑐥𑐸𑐎 𑐰 𑐳𑐸𑐠𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐾𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐵, 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎, 𑐰𑐿𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞, 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐷 𑐩𑐸𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐥𑐾𑑄𑐐𑐹 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐤𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐤𑐶𑐠𑑄 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐊 𑐰𑐮 𑐎𑐶 𑐰 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋

𑑑.𑑒 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵

𑐠𑑁𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟 𑑑𑑓,𑑒𑑖,𑑙𑑙𑑑𑐪 𑐡𑐸𑐳𑐵 𑑘𑑔𑑕,𑑒𑑓𑑒 𑐪 𑐰𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐩𑑄 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐷𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐹𑐮 𑐎𑐮𑐾𑐖𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑅𑐧𑐳𑑅 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐷, 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐎 𑐰 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐱𑑁𑐎𑐶𑐣 𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟 𑐖𑐎 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐍𑐥𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐎 𑐟𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐒𑐎 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐤𑐹 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑐠𑐸𑐏𑐾 𑐎𑑀𑐳𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐠𑑁 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐕𑐪 𑐩𑐾𑐪𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐥𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐟 𑐠𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐥𑐾𑐠𑐷 (𑐫, 𑐫𑐾, 𑐫𑑂, 𑐰 𑐊) 𑐣𑑄 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐊 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐫, 𑐫𑐾, 𑐫𑑂, 𑐰 𑐊 𑐐𑐣 𑐐𑐸𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐕𑐵𑐊 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐣𑐶𑐡𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐏𑑃 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐊 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐣 𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐹𑐮 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑅𑑋

𑑑.𑑓 𑐳𑐷𑐩𑐵𑐒𑑂𑐎𑐣 𑐰 𑐍𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐊 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐐 𑐖𑐎 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐧𑐵𑐴𑐾𑐎 𑐤𑐶𑐥𑑁, 𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐥𑑁, 𑐰 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐸𑐟𑐷𑐫 𑐳𑑄𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐩𑐵𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐩 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐀𑐣 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐩𑐎 𑐣𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐫 (Regulatory body) 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑅𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐫𑑅𑐫𑑅𑐠𑐾 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑑄𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐶𑐮𑐾 𑐩𑐖𑐹 𑐢𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐮𑐾𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐾 𑑓𑑓 𑐡𑑃 𑐡𑐊𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑐸𑐣𑑅𑐩𑐹𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐒𑑂𑐎𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐩𑐵𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐏𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐷 𑐰 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐎𑐟𑐊𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲 𑐩𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣𑐊 𑐫, 𑐫𑐾, 𑐫𑑂 𑐰 𑐊 𑐥𑐾𑑄𑐐𑑅 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐎 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑑑.𑑔 𑐄𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐫

(𑐎) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐊 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐾𑐠𑐷 ( 𑐫, 𑐫𑐾, 𑐫𑑂, 𑐰 𑐊 ) 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑐮𑐷𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐰 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑑋

𑑑.𑑕 𑐳𑐿𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐰𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐵

𑐳𑐣𑑂 𑑑𑑙𑑑𑑕 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐫𑐸𑐬𑑀𑐥𑐊 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐳 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂 𑐦𑐬𑑂‍𑐜𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐞𑑂𑐜 𑐡𑐶 𑐳𑐳𑐸𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐳𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐴 Cours de linguistique Generale -Course in General Linguistics) 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐨 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐳𑐳𑐸𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐣𑐎 (the father of the modern linguistics) 𑐣𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 (𑐎) 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂, 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑐰𑐂 (Speech is primary, and writing secondary) 𑑋 (𑐏) 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂 (All languages are equal) 𑑋 (𑐐) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑑅 (Change is natural for language) 𑑋 (𑐑) 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑑅 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀𑑄 𑐄𑐟𑑂𑐠𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐂 (Universal Grammar: Grammars are alike in basic ways) 𑑋 (𑐒) 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑑅 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐡𑐂 (Generally: Every language has a grammar) 𑑋 (𑐔) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐖𑐸𑐂, 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸 (Linguistics is descriptive, not prescriptive) (𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐰𑑅𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑑𑑅𑑔𑑒–𑑔𑑗) 𑑋

𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 (𑐣𑐸𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐵), 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑑋 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐊 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑐵𑑄𑐎𑐾𑐟𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐖𑐷𑐰𑐶𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐵 𑐣𑐸𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐦𑐸 𑑋 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐱𑐿𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑐶𑐠𑐶𑐎𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐏𑐸𑐮𑐵 𑐰 𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐡 𑑋 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐎 (vocal symbols) 𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐰𑐴𑐸𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐬–𑐟𑐬, 𑐬–𑐥𑐶𑐬 𑐂𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶 𑑋

𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑑅 𑐳𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶 𑐢𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐖𑐎 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶 (phone) 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑑄 (phonetics) 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐊 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 (phoneme) 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐐𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐡𑐸 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐷𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐾𑐡𑐎 𑐮𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 (Distinctive feature 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐾𑐡𑐎 𑐮𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 (Distinctive feature) 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐮𑐑𑐸𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐩 𑐫𑐸𑐐𑑂𑐩 (Minimal Pair) 𑐣𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 (𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣) 𑐰 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 (𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬) 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐶𑐠𑐶𑐎𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐪𑐸𑐟𑐸𑐥𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅 (Buccal cavity) 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐾𑐔𑑄 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐠𑐷𑐎 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 (Vowel) 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐠𑐩𑐶𑐎 𑐰 𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐟𑐷𑐫𑐎 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐠𑐶𑐎𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐠𑐩𑐶𑐎 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 (Cardinal Vowel) 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 𑐡𑐸 (𑐴𑐾𑐮 𑐰 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑑅𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑖𑑅𑑑) 𑑋

𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐊 𑐔𑐶𑐤𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐰 𑐔𑐶𑐤𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐳𑑀𑐠𑐶𑐎𑑄 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐎) 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐏) 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐐) 𑐀𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑑋 𑐔𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐏𑑅𑑋 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 (IPA) 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐏𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐪𑐷 𑐰 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐴𑐵𑑄𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐀𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐎𑐤𑐊 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐂 𑑋

𑐥𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐵𑐐𑐟 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐊 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐎𑑀𑐊 𑐟𑐵𑐊𑐎𑐷 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐄𑐩𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐧𑑅 𑐎𑐵𑐂 𑐳𑐵 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐫𑐵𑐂𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐮𑐶 𑐖𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐠𑐩𑐶𑐎 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐟𑐵𑐊𑐎𑐷, 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑑅𑐥𑐷 𑑋

𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐊 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐀𑑅𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑐮, 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐰𑐮 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐕𑐵𑐊𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 (𑐎) 𑐤𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐪, 𑐳𑑅𑐳𑐶𑐄𑐪 𑐖𑐹𑐳𑐵 𑐡𑐿𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐖𑐷𑐰𑐣𑐊 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑑋 (𑐏) 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐡𑐂𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐟𑐬 𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐊 𑐖𑐶𑐄 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐊 𑑑𑑒𑑕 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅, 𑐩𑐿𑐠𑐶𑐮𑐷, 𑐮𑐶𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐸, 𑐏𑐊 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐰 𑐩𑐾𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 (𑐐) 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟𑐳𑐾 𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐊 𑐳𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐡𑑀𑐮𑑄𑐡𑑀𑑅 𑐡𑑃 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐖𑐎 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐟𑐎 𑐮𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑘 𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐮𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐤𑐾𑐰 𑐩𑐣𑐸𑐏𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐐𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐯𑐵𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐂 ? 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐦𑐸 𑑋 (𑐑) 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐪 𑐩𑐔𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑑄𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐳𑐊𑐎𑐾 𑐦𑐸 𑑋

𑐔𑑀𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐟 𑐕𑐖𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐔𑐶𑑄 (Graphemes) 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐔𑑀𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 (𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣) 𑐣𑐶𑐠𑐶𑐎𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂, 𑐥𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐵𑐐𑐟 (Orthographic) 𑐰 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 (phonetic) 𑑋 𑐥𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐵𑐐𑐟 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 Alphabetic writing 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐖𑑀𑑅𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑑋 Alphabetic writing 𑐊 𑐮𑐾𑐚𑐬 𑐰 𑐳𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐥𑐹 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐖𑑀𑑅𑐮𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐬𑐸 𑑋 𑐡𑐳𑐹 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐀𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐖𑐷 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐦𑐸 𑑋 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐬𑑀𑐩𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐮, 𑐟𑐬 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐮𑐾𑐚𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐎𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎 𑐳𑑄𑐐𑐟 𑐣𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋

𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐊 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑐶𑐤𑑄 𑐳𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑐶𑑄 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 IPA 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐵 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐏𑑅, 𑐐𑐸𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐎 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐐, 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐬, 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐣𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎, 𑐧𑐵𑐮𑐑𑐵𑐟 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑑄 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐷 𑑋

𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐣𑐶𑐠𑐶𑐎𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 (𑐳𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐲𑑂𑐩 𑐰𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐸𑐔𑐶𑐟) 𑐰 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 (𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐹𑐮 𑐰𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑐎) 𑑋 𑐳𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐲𑑂𑐩 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐥𑐾𑐎𑐸𑑄𑐮𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐎 ([]) 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐰 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 (phonemes and allophones) 𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 (pen[phen] ‘𑐎𑐮𑐩’ 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐺𑐟 (Complex and detail) 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐔𑐶𑐔𑐷𑐢𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐟𑐵 (phonetic feature) 𑐣𑑄 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 (ten [thẽn] ‘𑐳𑐵𑐤, 𑐗𑐶’𑑋

𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐹𑐮 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐠𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐧𑐾𑐎𑑀𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐢𑑀 (÷÷) 𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐖𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑅 (distinctive sounds) 𑐖𑐎 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐖𑐎 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐂, 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 -÷pen÷. 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐔𑐶𑐔𑐷𑐢𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 (ten ÷ten÷ (𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐰𑑅𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑑𑑅 𑑕𑑙(𑑖𑑑) 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐸𑐮 𑐰 𑐳𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐲𑑂𑐩 𑐱𑐿𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐁𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐡 𑐴𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐷 𑑋 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐶𑐎 𑐧𑐴𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐏𑑃 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐡𑐿𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐴𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐐𑐶𑐩𑐊 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐧𑐷𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐩𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐱𑐿𑐮𑐷 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐴𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐎 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑑄 𑐳𑐿𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐰𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐵 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋

(𑐎) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐀, 𑐁) 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐡𑐎𑑀𑐳𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐴𑐩𑐟𑐶 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

(𑐏) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐁𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐷𑐫 syllabic 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 (𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐊 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸) 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐏𑑅𑑋

(𑐐) 𑐡𑐿𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋

(𑐑) 𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐷 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 (Economy and efficiency) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐏𑑅 𑑋

(𑐒) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋

𑑑.𑑖 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐰𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐣

𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑃 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐕𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐤𑐾𑐠𑐣𑐾 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳 𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑙𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐌𑐩𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑄 𑐣𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡 𑐧𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐊𑐎𑐰𑐶𑑄𑐱𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑀𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐔𑐵 𑐥𑐎𑐾𑐚 𑐳𑐵𑐂𑐖𑐊 𑐖𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐡 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑑒𑑖 𑐥𑐾𑐖𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐎𑐨𑐬𑐥𑐾𑐖𑐊 𑑋𑑋 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸𑐳𑐸𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑑋𑑋 𑑋𑑋 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐀𑐖𑐶𑐩𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑀𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑑋𑑋 𑑋𑑋 𑐰𑐧𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐳𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐣𑐪 𑐣𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐚𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐾 𑐡𑐸 𑑋𑑋 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐩 𑐱𑑂𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐰𑐵𑐡𑐊 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐦𑐮 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐨𑐟𑐷𑐔𑐵 𑐖𑐶𑐟𑐀 𑐮𑐵𑐟 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐸𑐞𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐵𑐥 𑐨𑐵𑐰𑑄 𑐖𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐟𑐶 𑐂𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐵𑐖𑐹 𑐎𑐶 𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐥𑐺𑐠𑐶𑐰𑐷𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐵𑑄𑐔𑑀 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐶𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑐎𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐣𑑄 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐷 𑐡𑐬𑑂‍𑐱𑐣𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐦𑐮𑐮𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐩𑑀𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑋𑑋𑑒𑑑𑑋𑑋 𑑋𑑋 𑑋𑑋 𑑘 𑑋𑑋 𑑋𑑋 𑐂𑐟𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐊𑐎𑐰𑐶𑑄𑐱𑐟𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑀𑐟𑑂𑐬𑑄 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐟𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐰𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳 𑐁𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐾𑑄 (𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗) 𑐔𑑀𑑄 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐀’ (𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐖𑐶𑐟𑐀) 𑐟𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎 ‘𑐳’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑐸𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐧𑐶𑐂𑐐𑐸 (𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐨𑐮𑐨𑐩𑐲𑑂𑐀𑐟𑐲𑑂𑐏𑐨) 𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐾𑑃–𑐫𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 ‘𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐖𑐸𑐊𑐩𑐵’ 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐥𑐡𑐨𑐾𑐡 (Parsing) 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐴𑐮𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 ( 𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐥𑐺𑐠𑐶𑐰𑐷𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐵𑑄𑐔𑑀 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐦𑐮𑐮𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐎𑐤𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐖𑐹𑐳𑐵 𑐠𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟 ‘𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐵 𑐥𑐺𑐠𑑂𑐰𑐷 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐵𑑄𑐔𑑀𑐥𑐶𑑄’ ‘𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐦𑐮 𑐮𑐵𑐣𑐵’ 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐟 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐁𑐱𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐎𑐸𑐠𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑑔𑑙𑑓𑐧 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐡𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐮 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐲𑐡𑐊 𑐡𑐸 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐁𑐱𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐎𑐸𑐠𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐵𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐲 𑐱𑐬𑐡𑐰𑐷𑐬 𑐎𑐳𑐵𑑅𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐎𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑕 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐖𑐐𑐟𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮𑑄 𑐂𑐳𑐥𑑄 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐵𑐏𑑄 (𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑕) 𑐳𑐦𑐸 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐳𑐸𑐬𑐹𑑄𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐟𑐎 𑐴𑐾 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑀𑐎𑑀𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐊𑐖. 𑐖𑐾. 𑐊𑐩𑑄 (𑐴𑐶𑐬𑐞𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐷𑐟 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮𑑄) 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵 (𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑕) 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑑅 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐳𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐬𑐞 (𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕) 𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐸𑐩𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐊 𑐴𑐶𑐬𑐞𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐷𑐟 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐖𑐾 𑐊𑐎 𑐬𑐹𑐥 (Consistent) 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐱𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑐮𑐾 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐸𑐏𑑂𑐫 𑐩𑐸𑐏𑑂𑐫 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐄𑐥𑐱𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑑓 𑐫𑑂 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐷 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 ‘𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂–𑐪𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂’ 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐳𑑄𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡 𑐟𑐠𑐵 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐰𑐵𑐫𑑂’ 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐵𑑅, ‘𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂–𑐪𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂’𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾–𑐪𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾’ 𑐟𑐠𑐵 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 ,𑐰𑐵𑐫𑑂’ 𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾’ 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐛𑐷𑐎 𑐩𑐖𑐹, 𑐧𑐵𑑃 𑐣𑑃 𑐩𑐮𑐵, 𑐎𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐸 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾’ 𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡𑑃 𑐎𑐺𑐡𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐖𑐸𑐃𑐧𑐮𑐾 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸’ 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡 𑐣𑑃 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 (𑑙𑑗–𑑑 (𑐁) 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃 𑑋 (𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐳 𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘𑑅𑐕)

𑐎𑐺𑐡𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡 (Objective word) (𑐁) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑑃 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐟𑐠𑐵 ‘𑐳𑐵’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐖𑐸𑐃, ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐐𑐣𑑃 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐫𑐰 ‘𑐊’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐥 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐖𑐸𑐃, 𑐐𑐣𑑃 ‘𑐰𑐣𑐾’ 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑑃 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐫𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐩𑐏𑐸 ‘𑐳𑐵’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐫𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐖𑐸𑐃 (‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥 (𑐎) 𑐣𑐫𑐾–𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐣𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾–𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾–𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾–𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋

𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐬𑐞𑑅 𑐠𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑐾𑐰𑐮 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐶𑐰𑑀𑐢𑐎 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐠 𑐖𑐎 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐚 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑑋 ‘𑐣𑐫𑐾–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐀𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐁𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐷 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑑃 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐧𑐶𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐥𑑃 (𑐐𑐣𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐃–𑐐𑐣𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐩𑐏𑐸 ) ‘𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐣𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸’ 𑐰 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐖𑐸𑐃, 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐫𑑅 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑃 𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐾 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑑋

(𑐏) 𑐠𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐡𑐾𑐱 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐵𑐟𑑂 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐃 (𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾–𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐰𑐣𑐾–𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 ‘𑐳𑐵’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥 (𑐐) 𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐣𑐳𑐵 𑑋 𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐟𑐶𑐳𑐵 𑑋 𑐮𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐮𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑑋 𑐴𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸– 𑐴𑐵𑐳𑐵 (𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐳 𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘𑑅𑑑𑑘𑑗–𑑑𑑘𑑙) 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 (𑐂𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑙𑑔𑑑) 𑐴𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐳 𑐫𑑀𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐳𑐣𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐀 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐩𑐬 𑐀𑐰 𑐡 𑐎𑑂𑐮𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐮 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 ‘𑐀,𑐁, 𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐌’ 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐧𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐮𑐶𑐏𑐶𑐟 𑐥𑐵𑐛𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐊 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐧𑑅𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑘 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫𑐔𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐶𑑄𑐴 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐵𑐔𑐵 (𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑐬) 𑑑𑑕𑐐𑐹 𑐥𑐾𑐖𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐔𑐵 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐁𑐡𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎𑐟𑐵 𑐡𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐾𑐟 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 (𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑘𑑅𑐨𑐹𑐩𑐶𑐎𑐵) 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 (𑑑) 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐣𑐾 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐂,𑐄’ 𑐖𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡, (𑑒) 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑 ‘𑐃, 𑐅’ 𑐖𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡, (𑑓) 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑀𑐣𑐾 𑐰 𑐡𑐠𑑂𑐰𑐷 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐂, 𑐄’ 𑐖𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡, (𑑔) 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑀𑐣𑐾 𑐰 𑐡𑐠𑑂𑐰𑐷 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐃 𑐅’ 𑐖𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡, 𑐰 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐧𑑀𑐊 𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐹𑐮 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐊 𑐕𑐎𑐹𑐔𑐵 𑐥𑐡𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐰 𑐰𑐶𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐟𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑒 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐥𑐸𑐲𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 ‘𑐳𑐵𑐐𑐬’𑐖𑐸 𑐳𑐸𑐧𑑀𑐢 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐟𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐊 𑑑𑑖𑐐𑑅 (𑐀, 𑐁, 𑐂, 𑐃, 𑐄, 𑐅, 𑐆, 𑐆, 𑐮𑐺, 𑐮𑐺, 𑐊, 𑐋, 𑐌, 𑐍, 𑐀𑑄, 𑐀𑑅) 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑑑𑑖 𑐐𑑅 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐹𑐮 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐐𑐸𑑄𑐐𑑅 (𑐀, 𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐆, 𑐮𑐺, 𑐊, 𑐋, 𑐌, 𑐍,) 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵 𑐎𑐿𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐀𑐗 (𑐀, 𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐆, 𑐮𑐺) 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰 𑐰 (𑐊, 𑐋, 𑐌, 𑐍) 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑 𑐀𑐠𑐰𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐫𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐮 (𑐳𑐵𑐐𑐬𑑅𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑒𑑅𑑒–𑑓) 𑑋 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐊 (𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑒𑑅𑑘–𑑙) 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣 𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐴𑐾 ‘(𑑔𑑖) ‘𑐊, 𑐋,𑐌,𑐍’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐎𑐠𑐸 𑐰 𑐪𑐸𑐟𑐸𑐳𑐶𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂, 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑑄𑐛𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑑂𑐫 𑐢𑐵𑐂’ 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐥𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐵𑐊 𑐠𑑀 𑐏𑑃 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑑄𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐥𑐱𑑂𑐔𑐶𑐩𑐵𑐟𑐊𑐳𑑄 𑐠𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐎𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐬𑐸 𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐁𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐶𑐎 𑐧𑐣𑑀𑐚𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐳𑑀𑐊𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐮𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐡 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐳𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 (𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘𑑅𑑓) 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐵𑐮 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑕 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐳𑐶𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐳𑐦𑐸 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐟𑑅 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐬𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐴𑐵𑐊𑐣𑑂𑐳 𑐖𑑀𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐳𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐵𑐛 𑐰 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐰𑐵𑐡 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐵𑐖𑐶𑐂 (𑑑) 𑐎𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷 (𑐣𑑂) 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐾 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸, (𑑒) 𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐵𑐡𑐶 𑐟𑑂 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐾 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸, (𑑓) 𑐣𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶 𑐮𑑂 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐾 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸, (𑑔) 𑐴𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶 (𑐮𑑂) 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐾 𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐦𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐾 𑐳𑑄 ‘𑐮’ 𑐡𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸, 𑐰 (𑑕) 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶 –𑐖𑐫𑐮–𑐥𑐮𑑂, 𑐨𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐮–𑐥𑐮, 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐋𑐟𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐠𑐣 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑑂‍𑐨𑐶𑐎 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑖 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐳𑐸𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐥𑐶𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐏𑑅𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑑄𑐥𑐸 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑑗 𑐥𑑁𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐂 𑐩𑐹𑐮 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 (𑐐𑐫𑐾, 𑐥𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐾, 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐎𑐾, 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑃𑐣𑐾, 𑐨𑐥𑐾, 𑐟𑑀𑐟𑐾) 𑐳 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸𑑄 𑐀𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑑄 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑 𑐖𑐸𑐂 (𑐥𑑁 𑑓) 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰–𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾 (𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑗) 𑐩𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑑑𑑒 𑐥𑑁𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸 (𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸) 𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐫 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐞𑐶𑐟 𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐩𑐵𑐮 (𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑗𑑅𑐨𑐸𑐩𑐶𑐎𑐵) 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐴𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐡𑐸, 𑐟𑐬 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐢𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐂 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐰 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣 𑐟𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑑀𑑅𑐕𑐷𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐟 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐳𑐶 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐴𑐾 ‘𑐫 𑐰 𑐰’ 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑅 𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣 𑐣𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣 (𑐥𑐶𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑑅 𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑗𑑅𑑒) 𑐢𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐫𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐸𑐎 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐢𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐣𑐳𑐸𑐰𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐔𑑀𑐕𑐵𑐊𑐧𑐴 𑐖𑐹, 𑐟𑐬 𑐔𑑀𑐕𑐵𑐫𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑐎 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐢𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐏𑑃 ‘𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐠𑐩, 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐫, ‘𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵 𑐀,𑐁 𑐫, 𑐰 𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑑋𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 ‘𑐰𑑄 𑐖𑐵 𑐣𑑅’ ‘𑐕𑑄 𑐖𑐵 𑐣𑑅 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑 𑐖𑐸𑐄 𑐰𑐮, ‘𑐰𑑄 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐧𑑂𑐰𑑄’, ‘𑐕𑑄 𑐖𑐵𑐎𑐶 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑑅’ 𑐧𑑂𑐰𑑄, 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑑅 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑 𑐖𑐸𑐮’ 𑑋𑑋𑑑𑑓𑑋𑑋 (𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑗𑑅𑑕) 𑑋 𑐩𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐵 (𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑𑐟𑐵) 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑘 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐳𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐩𑑀𑐴𑐣 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑑒𑑗 𑐥𑑁 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐸𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐳𑐷𑐡𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐾𑐟 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐟𑑀𑐟𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 (𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑘𑑅𑑖) 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐰 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐡𑐸, 𑐟𑐬 𑐩𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐱𑐿𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐊𑐧𑐴 𑐖𑐹 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑓 (𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑑𑐳𑐵𑐮) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐃𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐸𑐏𑐵 𑐧𑑅𑐔𑐵𑐢𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐮𑐔𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐾 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑔 (𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑗 𑐡𑑃𑐊) 𑐳𑐵𑐮𑐊 𑐔𑐮𑑄𑐔𑐵 (𑐔𑐶𑐎𑐶𑐔𑐵 𑐢𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞) 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐵𑐁𑐏𑑅 (vowel) 𑐡𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 (𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑑𑑅𑑑–𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑔𑑅𑑑) 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐰𑐴𑐾 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 ‘𑐫’ 𑐰 ‘𑐰’ 𑐩𑐵–𑐧𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐁𑐏𑐮𑐊 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅 (𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑑𑑅𑑔 𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑔𑑅𑑖) 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐢𑐿𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋

𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐷𑐳𑑀𑐣𑐵𑐧𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐊 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑀𑐐𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐰 𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐀𑐮𑐐 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐕𑐟𑐵 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐣𑐶𑐠𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐟𑐊 𑐮𑐵 𑐖𑐷 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐥𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐾𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐣 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐩𑐔𑑀𑐣 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑗 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐢𑐬 𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐐𑐫𑑂 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑑𑑓 𑐥𑑁 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐸 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮, 𑐫𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐶 𑐔𑑀𑐩𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐔𑐵 𑐢𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐂, 𑐄 𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰 𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑, 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐬 𑐰 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐣𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎, 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑑅, 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, 𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐄𑐥𑐱𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎 𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐳𑐹 𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐳𑐸 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐧𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐧𑑅 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑐎𑐨𑐣𑑄 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑘 (𑐃𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑙𑑗𑑘) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐱𑐶𑐱𑐷𑐬𑐎𑐸𑐩𑐵𑐬 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐖𑐸𑑄 English, Nepali, & Newari A Comparison and its Pedagogic Application 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐏𑐸𑐐𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐀, 𑐌, 𑐀, 𑐁) 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳 𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙 (𑐃𑐳 𑑑𑑙𑑗𑑙) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐟𑐾𑐖𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐖𑐸𑑄 A Generative Phonology of Kathmandu Newari 𑐱𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎𑐊 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑑀𑐢 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐀𑐊 (ɛ), 𑐀, 𑐌, 𑐁𑐊(æ) 𑐁) 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑒 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑓 (𑐃𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑙𑑘𑑓) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 A Basic Course in Colloquial Newari 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐷𑐟𑐊𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐳𑐾𑐣𑐾𑐟 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐌, 𑐀𑐊, 𑐁𑐊 𑐀, 𑐁) 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐤𑐊𑐐𑑅 (𑐊𑐂, 𑐊𑐄, 𑐀𑐂, 𑐀𑐄, 𑐁𑐂, 𑐁𑐄, 𑐄𑐂) 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐠𑑀 𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐮𑐊 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐀, 𑐁) 𑐳𑐎𑐮𑐳𑐶𑐣𑑄 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑐟 𑑋 ‘𑐌’ 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐮𑐫𑐵𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐰𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐔𑐸𑐂 𑐀𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑅 𑐟𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐡 𑐡 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐣𑐶 𑑋 ‘𑐀𑐊 (ɛ), 𑐰 𑐁𑐊 (æ)’ 𑐁𑐂𑐥𑐷𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐮𑐏𑐊 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐏𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐔𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐰 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑅 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐎𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐎𑑄 𑐳𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐟𑐵𑐊𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐰 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑅 𑐳𑑅 𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐟𑐵𑐊 𑐡𑐸, 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑑄 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑃 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑃 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐖𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐶𑐏𑐵 𑐎𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 – 𑐕𑐳𑐸 (…𑐊, 𑐌, 𑐋, 𑐍) 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐂 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐰 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐴𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐊 ‘𑐯𑐵–𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐠𑑅𑐠𑑅𑐴𑐾 𑐧𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐎𑑄 (𑐀𑐮𑐐𑑂𑐐) 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐀𑐫𑑂𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐰 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐯𑐵𑐟𑐮𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐖𑐎 𑐳𑐷𑐩𑐶𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐐𑐫𑑂𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐎𑑄 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐡𑐸𑐏𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑐰 𑐖𑐹 𑐰𑐮, 𑐫𑐾𑑃 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐳𑑅𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐳 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐵𑐮𑐷, 𑐗𑐷𑐳𑑄 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐏𑑃 𑐔𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐵 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐵’ (𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵, 𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙𑑅𑑑𑑔)𑑋 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐖𑐾𑐮𑐵𑑅𑐖𑐎 𑐫𑐂𑐥𑐸𑐂 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐁𑐮𑑄𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐢𑐂𑐡𑐶𑐮– ‘𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐩𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐪𑐳𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐾𑐳𑐸 – 𑐩𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐖𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐧𑐸𑐂, 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐧𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐣𑐷 𑐄𑐮𑐶 𑐴𑐾 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐷, 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐾 𑐖𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐣𑐷’ 𑑋 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐣𑐸𑐎𑐹𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 ‘𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐫𑑂 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐎𑑂𑐲 𑐮𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐟𑐵, 𑐰𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐟𑐵, 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎𑐟𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾 𑐥𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑄 𑐨𑐶𑑄 𑑋 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐮𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐮 𑐗𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐮𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐁𑐏𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐣𑐶 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐥𑐵𑑄 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐸𑐂 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐵’ (𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑑅𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙𑑅𑑑𑑕) 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐢𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐶 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑐂 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅 𑐔𑐸𑐮𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐳𑐹 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾 (‘‘𑐊’𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐫𑑂– ‘𑐊’ 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐰𑑄 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐣 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐵𑐟𑑂 ‘𑐫𑐾’𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐢𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐾𑑄 ‘𑐊’𑐣𑐵𑐥 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐗𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐧𑐬𑑂‍𑐎𑑄𑐕𑐶 𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐟 ‘𑐫,𑐫𑑅, 𑐫𑐫𑑂, 𑐀𑐫𑑂’ 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐗𑐷𑐳𑑄 𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐠𑐾 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐸𑐂 𑐣𑑄 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐄𑐥𑐫𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐏𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐂’ (𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵,𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙𑑅𑑒𑑐) 𑑋

𑐴𑐵𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐦𑐊 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐶𑐮 ‘𑐊 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐗𑐷𑐟 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐩𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵 𑐰𑐂– ‘𑐫𑐾𑑃 𑐡𑐾 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐰 𑐴𑐾 𑐴𑐶𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋’ 𑐖𑐶 𑐎𑐤𑐾 𑐫𑐾𑑃𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐣𑐾’ 𑐠𑐫𑑂 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐕𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 ‘𑐊’ 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐮 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐎 𑐰 𑐎𑐶𑐳𑑄 (𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶) 𑐳𑐶𑐂 𑐡𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐾 𑐠𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐾 ‘𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐫𑑂 𑐕𑐪 𑐡𑐸’ ‘𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐳 𑐟𑐳𑐎𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐮’ 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑑄 ‘𑐊’ (𑐨) 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑐎 𑐰 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐎𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑐎 𑐳𑐶𑐂 𑐡𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐾 𑐠𑐵𑐎𑐸’ 𑑋

𑐠𑐣 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐷𑐧𑐮𑐊 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 (𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬) 𑐰 𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 (𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣) 𑐮𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑅𑐧𑐸𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐩𑐸𑐮𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑐵𑐎𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐶 𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾 𑐡𑐂𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐟𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐐𑐣𑐟𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐴𑐾 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐖𑐸𑐳𑐾𑑄𑐮𑐶 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐫𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐰𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐣𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 (General Linguistics or Universal Grammar) 𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐏𑑅 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑙 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐏𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐮𑐶𑐩𑐮𑐶 𑐳𑐦𑐸 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐸𑐐𑑅𑐏𑑃 𑐤𑐾𑐠𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐊 ‘… 𑐕𑐸 𑐣𑑄 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐧𑑂𑐰𑐠𑐮𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐠𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐎𑐔𑐵 𑐡𑐮𑐶𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐂 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑐵𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅, 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎 𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐖𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐶𑐂 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾

𑐥𑐸𑐳𑐵𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 (𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅) 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑐵𑐔𑐸𑐮𑐶𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 (𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎 𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅

𑐔𑑂𑐰 𑐫𑑂 𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾

𑐔𑑂𑐰 𑐣𑑂 𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾

𑐴𑐵 𑐮𑑂 𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐾 𑐰 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐾’ 𑑋

𑐠𑐣 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖𑑄 𑐤𑐾𑐧𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐟𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐵 (𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑙𑑅𑑑𑑒) 𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑑀𑐟 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐚𑐾𑐧𑐮 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 (𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑐𑑅𑑓) 𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑑀𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑑂‍𑐨 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 (𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑐𑑅𑑓) 𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐡𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐏𑑅 𑐟𑐬 𑐚𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑑀𑐟 𑐤𑐾𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐹𑐳𑐵 𑐮𑐸𑑃𑐂 𑐣𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 (𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑐𑑅𑑓) 𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐡𑐸–

𑐴𑐵 (𑐔𑑂) 𑐡𑑄 (𑐎𑑂) 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶 (Morphophonemics) 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐠

𑐧𑑂𑐰 I 𑐰– 𑐰– 𑐀 Come (PD)

𑐧𑑂𑐰 II 𑐳𑐶– 𑐳𑐶– 𑐀 die (PD)

𑐧𑑂𑐰 II 𑐰𑑃– 𑐰𑐣𑑂– 𑐀 go (PD)

𑐧𑑂𑐰 IV 𑐳𑐶– 𑐳𑐶𑐮𑑂– 𑐀 rinse (PD)

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐫𑑅𑐩𑐬𑐶𑐥𑐸𑐤𑐶 𑐕𑐤𑐸 𑐤𑐾𑐰 𑐗𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑂𑐰 𑐰 𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐵𑐐𑑅 𑐳𑐦𑐸 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸 ‘𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐥 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐏𑑅 (𑐕𑐳𑐸)’ 𑐮𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐏𑑀𑐥 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐟𑐶𑐦𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐦𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐫𑑅𑐩𑐬𑐶 𑐥𑐸𑐤𑐶𑐏𑐸𑐣𑐸 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐴𑐵𑐣𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑐵𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐢𑐸𑐎𑐹 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 (root) 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎 (formative) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎 𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 (infinitive suffix), 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐕𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐢𑐮𑑅 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸, 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 (𑑒𑑐 𑐥𑐾𑐖 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐔𑐵) 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐏𑑃𑐊 ‘𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 (𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞–𑐰𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐊 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐬𑐸𑐥 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐁𑐥𑐵𑐮𑑄 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹, 𑐩𑐕𑐶𑑄 𑐰 𑐥𑑄𑐐𑐮𑑄 𑐟𑐟𑐩𑐟 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐀𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐶𑐬𑐟𑐵 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐩𑐶𑐟 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐹 𑐮𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸, 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐢𑐣, 𑐠𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐠𑐶 𑐰 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐟 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑑄 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐫𑐾𑑃𑐡𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐣𑑄 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐶𑐟 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐫𑑂𑐳𑑄 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐠𑐣 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑑅𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐩𑐖𑐶𑐩𑐐𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐧𑐵𑐬𑐾 𑐖𑐎 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐏𑑃 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐂’ 𑑋 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵𑐟 (𑑑) 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑, (𑑒) 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐐 – 𑐀𑐰𑐶𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐐, (𑑓) 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐣𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎– 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐬, (𑑔) 𑐔𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐳𑑅 𑐟𑐳𑑂𑐳𑑅, (𑑕) 𑐫𑐾– 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, (𑑖) 𑐫𑑂–𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟, (𑑗) 𑐥𑐡𑐫𑑀𑐐–𑐥𑐡𑐰𑐶𑐫𑑀𑐐, (𑑘) 𑐥𑐵𑐴𑐵𑑃 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅, (𑑙) 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐏𑑃 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐐𑐸𑐧𑑀𑐊 𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚 (𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑𑑅𑑑𑑑(𑑑𑑕) 𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐫𑐾𑑃𑐡𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐶𑐟 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐫𑑂𑐳𑑄 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑑅𑐥𑐶𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐖𑐶𑐩𑐐𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐎 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸– (𑐎) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑅 𑐁𑐏𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐂, (𑐏) 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐠𑐩 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐹𑐲𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐰𑐵 𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐱𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐄 𑐰𑐮 𑐎𑐶 ‘𑐫𑐾’ (‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐐𑐮𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐩𑐏𑐸) 𑐩𑐾𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, (𑐐) 𑐫𑐾– 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾’ 𑐖𑐸𑐂, (𑐑) 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐷𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑐶𑑄 ‘𑐳’𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸, (𑐒) 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐀𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫 (𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐣𑐾, 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾,) 𑐁𑐡𑐶𑐂 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 ‘𑐫’ 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹, (𑐔) 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐮𑐣𑐫𑑂 (𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐬𑐹𑐥) 𑐳,𑐔, 𑐖 (𑐰𑐵 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸) 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐫’ 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐄𑐎𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 ‘𑐊’ 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, (𑐕) 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐫𑑂 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶 𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐯𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹, 𑐐𑐠𑐾– 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫 (𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂) 𑐩𑐏𑐸, (𑐖) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐪𑐩𑐳𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐮𑐫𑑂’ 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐶 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐰𑐵 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐵 ‘𑐳’ 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 (𑐳𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃 𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑑑)𑑋

𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑑀 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐣𑐶𑐡𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐰 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 (Prescriptive Grammar) 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐖𑐧 𑐎𑐶 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐠𑐪𑑄 𑐠𑑅(𑐫𑐵) 𑐟 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐫𑐵 (Descriptive Grammar) 𑐥𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐢𑐬 𑐟𑐵𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑐣𑑂 𑑑𑑙𑑑𑑕 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐫𑐸𑐬𑑀𑐥𑐊 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐳 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂 𑐦𑐬𑑂‍𑐜𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐣𑐞𑐜 𑐡𑐶 𑐳𑐳𑐸𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐳𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐴 Cours de linguistique Generale (Course in General Linguistics_) 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐾𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐨 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐳𑐳𑐸𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐣𑐎 (the father of the modern linguistics) 𑐣𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐁𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 (𑐎) 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂, 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑐰𑐂 (Speech is primary, and writing secondary) 𑑋 (𑐏) 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂 (All languages are equal) 𑑋 (𑐐) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑑅 (Change is natural for language) 𑑋 (𑐑) 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑑅 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀𑑄 𑐄𑐟𑑂𑐠𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐂 (Universal Grammar: Grammars are alike in basic ways) 𑑋 (𑐒) 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑑅 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐡𑐂 (Generally: Every language has a grammar) 𑑋 (𑐔) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐖𑐸𑐂, 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸 (Linguistics is descriptive, not prescriptive) (𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐰𑑅𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑑𑑅𑑔𑑒–𑑔𑑗) 𑑋

𑐠𑑀 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐫𑐩𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐧𑐵𑐴𑐾𑐎 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐍𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐸𑐎𑐸𑐩𑐷 𑐥𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐨𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐟𑐵 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑔𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐸𑐟 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑔 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐵𑐡𑐣𑐊 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐖𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐮𑐔𑑄 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚 𑐰 𑐖𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐵𑐮 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 “𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐰 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬 ‘𑐫𑐾’” 𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐫 𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑀𑐟𑐵𑐖𑐷 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐊 𑐫, 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐊 𑐰 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐫𑑂 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 𑐫𑐾 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚 𑐰 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑅𑑗–𑑙) (𑐳𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃 𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑑒) 𑑋

𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑑅 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐮 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐢𑐸𑐣𑐾𑐰𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐸𑐏𑐵𑑄 𑐡𑐸𑐴𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑐳𑐾𑑄𑐮𑐶 𑐀𑐣 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐹 𑐖𑐸𑐂, 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐀𑐣 𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐵 𑐫𑐾 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐖𑐶 𑐡𑐊 𑐩𑐖𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐳𑐣𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵 (𑐊) 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐢𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 (𑐫𑑂, (𑐫𑐾) 𑐟𑐊𑐐𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐰 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎 𑐩𑐡𑐸, 𑐏𑐵𑐮𑐶 𑐣𑐶𑐡𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 (Prescriptive Grammar) 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑁 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐊 𑐥𑑄𑐐𑑅 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑅 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐷 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 (Economy and efficiency) 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐏𑑃 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫 (General linguistics or Universal Grammar) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐣 𑐏𑑅 𑑋

𑐠𑑁𑑄 𑐄𑐐𑐹 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑑓𑑓 (𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗–𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑔) 𑐡𑑃 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐮𑐣 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐃𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑑒𑑗 𑐡𑑃 𑐡𑐊𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑑄 𑐖𑐷𑐰𑐶𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐟𑐵𑑅𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑐟𑐎 𑐠𑐵𑐟𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐷𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐎𑐩𑐳𑐾𑐎𑐩 𑑑𑑐𑐡𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐳𑐷𑐡𑐊𑐎 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐊𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐷 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐂𑐮𑐊𑐧𑐾𑐮𑐊 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴 𑐫𑐵𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐠𑑀 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐖𑐸 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑐳𑐵 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐀𑐖𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐵 ‘𑐫’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐖𑐸𑑄 (𑑒𑑐𑑗𑑔𑑋𑑐𑑔𑑋𑑒𑑕𑐫𑐵 𑐦𑑀𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐵 𑐎𑐠𑑄) 𑐀𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐊 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐳𑐵 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐥𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐥𑐸 𑐟𑐊𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐟 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑓 𑐔𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐵 𑑒𑑖 (𑐟𑐕𑐮𑐵 𑑘 (𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑐𑑓𑑙𑑋𑑑𑑒𑑋𑑒𑑖–𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑐𑑋𑑓𑑋𑑔) 𑐟𑐎 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑑁 𑐩𑐸𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐱𑐸𑐨 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐎𑐸𑐠𑐶𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑑑𑑔𑐐𑐹 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐸𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑑒𑑐 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐂𑐣𑐵𑐧𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 𑐳𑑀𑐮𑐵𑐟𑐎 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐟 𑑋 𑐏𑐸𑐡𑑃𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐮𑐔𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑐴𑐨𑐵𑐐𑐷𑐟𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐴𑐩𑐟𑐶 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟 (𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐺𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑑕 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃) 𑑋

𑐖𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐵𑐮 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬 ‘𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫 ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟) 𑐰 ‘𑐫𑐾’𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵’ 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐕𑐸𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐏𑐾𑐮𑐸𑐂𑐟𑐵𑑅 (𑑖𑑅𑑖𑑅 𑑕𑑓–𑑖𑑔) 𑐳 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑐠𑐣 𑐤𑐾𑐧𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐟 (𑑑) 𑐏𑑃 𑐤𑐾𑐠𑐣𑐵, (𑑒) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐷 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐮𑐸𑐂𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅, (𑑓.𑑑) 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫 𑐱𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎 ‘𑐫’,’𑐫𑑂’ (𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟) 𑐰 ‘𑐫𑐾’𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵, (𑑓.𑑒) ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟) 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐶𑐟𑐶, (𑑓.𑑓) ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟) 𑐩𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵, (𑑓.𑑔) ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟) 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 (𑑔.𑑑) 𑐫𑐾–𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵, (𑑔) 𑐄𑐥𑐳𑑄𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐄𑐥𑐱𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐥𑐳𑑄𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐸𑑄 (𑐎) 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐠𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐚𑐵𑐂𑐥 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐎 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑑅𑐥𑐸𑐎𑐾𑐟 𑐀𑐣𑐵𑐰𑐱𑑂𑐫𑐎 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐫𑑂 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐪𑑀 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸, (𑐏) ‘𑐳,𑐔,𑐖’ 𑐴𑐶𑐮𑐵𑑅 ‘𑐫’ 𑐖𑐹𑐠𑐵𑐊 ‘𑐫’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐊 ‘𑐫’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸, (𑐐) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐊 ‘𑐫’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸, (𑐑) 𑐚𑐵𑐂𑐥 𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐰𑐣𑑂𑐢–𑐔𑑀𑐏𑑃𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐩𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕𑑅𑑒(𑑖𑑓)𑑋

𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 (𑐎) 𑐰 (𑐑) 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐞𑑄 𑐦𑐾𑐖𑐁𑐄𑐚 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐮 𑐠𑐾𑑃 𑐔𑑀𑐣 𑑋 (𑐏) 𑐰 (𑐐) 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑅 𑐏𑑅 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑔 (𑐃𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑙𑑘𑑔) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸 A Descriptive study of the Bhaktapur Dialect of Newari 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐀, 𑐁) 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐶𑐧𑑀 𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐸𑐟 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥 ‘(𑐫𑐾’ 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐱𑐿𑐮𑐷𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣, 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐰 𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐊 𑐟𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 𑐣 𑐤𑐾𑐧𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 ÷– 𑐫𑐾 ÷ 𑐰 ÷ –𑐊 ÷ 𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑑀𑐔𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐂 ÷ –𑐫𑐾 ÷, 𑐰 𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑑀𑐔𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾 ÷ –𑐊 ÷ 𑐰𑐂 𑐢𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐) 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 (𑑒𑑐𑑖𑑐–𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑓)) 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑑃 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐶𑐮 (𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑑅 𑑒𑑐𑑖𑑐𑑅𑑙𑑐) 𑑋

𑐠𑐣 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸𑑄 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒 𑐰 𑑒𑑐𑑖𑑐(𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑓)) 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐊 𑐨𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐥𑐵𑐟 𑑋 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎 𑐰 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐩𑐾𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 (𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑑀𑐔𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾) 𑐬 (𑐊 𑐬 𑐖𑐸𑐳𑐾𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑑀𑐔𑐵𑐂𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐖𑐎 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐀𑐣 𑐣 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 (𑐟𑑂–𑐁.𑐟𑐵, 𑐎𑑂–𑐁.𑐎𑐵, 𑐏𑑂–𑐁.𑐏) 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐂 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 (–𑐊) 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐟𑐵𑐊, 𑐎𑐵𑐊, 𑐏𑐊 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐸𑐟𑐶 ((𑐫𑑂) 𑐏𑑄𑐎𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮, 𑐠𑑀 𑐏𑑃 𑐠𑐸𑐂𑐎𑐾 𑐠𑐵𑐎𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑑂‍𑐨𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐵𑐊 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐖𑐷𑑄 (–𑐊) 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐟𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐏𑑅, 𑐟𑐬 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐩𑐖𑐸 𑐢𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐥𑐬𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐀𑐠𑐰𑐵 𑐁𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐶𑐎 𑐧𑐣𑑀𑐚𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐢𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐠𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐣 𑑋

𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑑄 𑐏𑑃 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑑄 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐟 𑐥𑐾𑐟𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅– (𑐎) 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐸, (𑐏) 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶, (𑐐) 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵, 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐰 (𑐑) 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑑄 𑐳𑑀𑐊𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐸, 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐳𑐎𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑑄 𑐥𑐹𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑐿𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐰𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐵 (𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐰 𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥 –𑐊 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐬𑐹𑐥) 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲 𑐏𑑄𑐎𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐬𑐹𑐥 (Default) 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐣 𑐴𑐶𑐮𑐷𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐞𑑄 𑐖𑐎 𑐴𑐶𑐮𑐷, 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 (𑐠𑐣 𑐬𑐹𑐥) 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐎𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐖𑐶𑐄 𑑋 𑐐𑐣𑐟𑐎 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐟𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐂𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐟𑐵𑐊𑐡𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑅 (𑐂 > 𑐫𑐷, 𑐄 > 𑐰𑐸, 𑐌 > 𑐰𑑀, 𑐊 > 𑐫𑐾 ) 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐏𑑅, 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐖𑐶𑐄 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐟𑐵𑐊𑐎𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐊 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐏𑑃𑐊𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐥𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐖𑐧 𑐎𑐶 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐄𑐩𑐶 𑐣 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐊 𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐴𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑐮𑐵 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐴𑐾 𑐳𑑂𑐥𑐲𑑂𑐚 𑐖𑐹 (𑐣𑐩𑐹𑐣𑐵𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃 𑐀𑐨𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐨 𑐰𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐢𑐸𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐵 𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐣 𑐰 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐰𑐵𑐡) 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐎 𑐰 𑐥𑐵𑐛𑐎𑐟𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐳𑐊𑐎𑐹𑐳𑐵 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑑅𑐠𑐩𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐡𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐣𑐷 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐸𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐗𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑙 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵 (𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐰𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳) 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐩 𑐎𑐨𑐬 𑐥𑐾𑐖𑐊 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐫𑑂𑐟𑐵𑑅 𑐏𑑃 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑐷 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐁𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐫 𑐩𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑑃 𑐠𑐣 𑐯𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐟 𑑋 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐸𑐟 𑐗𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 (𑐀, 𑐁, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐌) 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣𑑅 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑅𑑓) 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑗 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐱𑑀𑐢 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐨𑐶𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑘 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐔𑐫 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐏𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐊𑐩𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐷𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐷𑐟𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐵𑐛𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩𑐊 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐟 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐰𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅 𑐫𑑂 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐰𑐵𑐡𑐷 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑒 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐊𑐩𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐷𑐟𑐊𑐟 𑐧𑑀𑑄𑐎𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐵–𑐣𑑀𑐚𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑐵𑐦𑐶 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐊𑐩𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐵𑐛𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩𑐊 𑐮𑐵𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐴𑐵𑐣 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅 𑐫𑐾–𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐰𑐵𑐡𑐷 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐, 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑗, 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑘 𑐰 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑒 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐀𑐮𑐐 𑐀𑐮𑐐 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐰𑐵𑐡𑐷 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐳𑐷𑐎𑐾 𑐠𑐵𑐎𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑗 𑐳 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐠𑐣 𑐣𑑄 𑐏𑐸𑐐𑑅 𑐎𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑗𑑅𑑑𑑑–𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑘𑑅𑑖𑑒) 𑑋

𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐊 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐮𑐾𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 (𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑒𑑅𑑗𑑐–𑑗𑑗) 𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐹 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐱𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎𑐊 𑐕𑐮𑐦𑐮 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐵𑐡 𑐴𑐾 𑐧𑐷𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶, 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐟𑑂𑐰, 𑐑𑑀𑐲𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐊 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵, 𑐊𑐎𑐵 𑐰 𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐬, 𑐌𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐰 𑐰𑐎𑐵𑐬, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐊 (𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐰 𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐵𑐬, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎 𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐎𑐸𑐳𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐩𑐹𑐣𑐵, 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐰 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵 𑐤𑐾𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐐𑐸𑑃𑐂𑐐𑐸𑑃𑐂 𑐣𑐷𑐎 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎 𑐐𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐟𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐥𑐲𑑂𑐚 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐩𑐡𑐷 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑐 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐊 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐣 𑐠𑐣 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐟𑐎 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐖𑐹 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐪𑐶𑐔𑐵𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐷𑐫 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐰 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑅𑐔𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐎𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐪𑐳𑐷𑐎𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣 𑐄𑐥𑐱𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎𑐊 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑑅 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐎𑐠𑑄 /–𑐊 / 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐎𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐕𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫, 𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐳𑐩𑐐𑑂𑐬 /– 𑐊 / 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐸𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐐𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐪 𑐳𑐴𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐟𑐎 𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸𑑅𑐏𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐴𑐾 𑐢𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑐 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐤𑐾𑐏𑑃, 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣, 𑐧𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅, 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷, 𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐴𑐣𑐵, 𑐎𑐠𑑄𑐴𑐣𑐵 𑐰 𑐮𑐶𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐠𑐣𑐊 ‘𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐷 𑐏𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 /𑐊 / [ e] 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐷 𑐩𑐟𑐿𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐬𑐸 𑑋 𑐔𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀 /𑐀𑐊 / [ ɛ ], 𑐁𑐊 [ æ ], 𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐩𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑅 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐖𑐹𑐟𑐮𑐾 𑐫𑐹𑐣𑐶𑐎𑑀𑐜 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐟 𑐩𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐷𑐟𑐊𑐟 𑐧𑑀𑑄𑐎𑐷 𑑋 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐄𑐩𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐳𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐟𑐵 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 (skill) 𑐰 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅 (tools) 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐟𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐀𑑅𑐥𑐸𑐎 𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐟 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐸𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐵 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾 𑐳𑑅𑐥𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾 𑐦𑐊𑐎𑐾𑐟 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐳𑐴𑐖𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐊 𑐦𑐊𑐎𑐾𑐟 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐵𑑅” 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐡𑐿𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 (𑐎) 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐸𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐎𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸, 𑐰 (𑐏) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑐬𑐮 𑐰 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐟 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐞, 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐣𑐟𑐩 𑐫𑐹𑐐𑑂𑐩, 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐁𑐏𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐪𑐶𑐔𑐵𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐷𑐫 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐰 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑅𑐔𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐎𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐪𑐳𑐷𑐎𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐥𑐵𑐛 (𑐟𑐨𑐴𑐟) 𑐊 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐟 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑐮𑐊 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫 𑑔 𑐊 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣 𑐄𑐥𑐱𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎𑐊 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑑅 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐎𑐠𑑄 ÷ –𑐊 ÷ 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐎𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐕𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫, 𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐳𑐩𑐐𑑂𑐬 ÷– 𑐊÷ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑒 (𑐃𑐳 𑑒𑑐𑑑𑑒) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐡𑐵𑐣𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐬𑐾𑐐𑑂𑐩𑐷𑐖𑐸𑑄 Khwopa Newar A Grammar Sketch 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐀, 𑐁) 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐁𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐶𑐎 𑐧𑐣𑑀𑐚 (𑐧𑐵) (𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐸) 𑐩𑐵 (𑐴𑑂) 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐫𑐾𑑃–𑐫𑐮, 𑐏𑑀𑐥𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐾𑐟𑐵𑐟𑐊𑐳𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐟𑐸𑐮𑐳𑐷𑐮𑐵𑐮 𑐳𑐶𑑄𑐴𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐵𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐊𑐩𑐊 𑐄𑐥𑐵𑐢𑐶 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐒 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑑑𑑘 𑐥𑐾𑐖𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣𑐊 (𑑑) 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐵𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐔𑐫,𑐨𑑁𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐶𑐎 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐔𑐫, 𑐰 (𑑒) 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅𑐣𑐶𑐧𑑀𑐊 𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 (𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 ?) 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐔𑐫 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 (𑐎) 𑐣𑐵𑐩, (𑐏) 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐩, (𑐐) 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐞, (𑐑) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, (𑐒) 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣, (𑐔) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐒 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 ‘…𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐾, 𑐣𑐾 𑐮𑐾 𑐥𑐾 𑐎𑐾 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣𑑄 𑐀𑐣𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐂’ 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐸 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑑃 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒 (𑐳𑐣 𑑑𑑙𑑙𑑒) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐡𑐫𑐵𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐸𑑄 Nominal and verbal Morphology in Six Dialects of Newari 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐫𑐾𑑃–𑐫𑐮, 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐒𑑂𑐐𑐵𑑄, 𑐏𑑀𑐥, 𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐷𑐥𑐸𑐬, 𑐡𑑀𑐮𑐏𑐵, 𑐰 𑐧𑐜𑐷𑐏𑐾𑐮 𑐥𑐴𑐬𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐊𑐩𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐥𑐵𑐢𑐶 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑐸𑐐𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐌, 𑐁, 𑐀) 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 ‘𑐁’ 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐶𑐩𑑂𑐣 𑐀𑐐𑑂𑐬 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐥𑐡 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃 𑐥𑐶𑐚𑐬 𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐾𑐦𑑀𑐐𑐾𑐚 (𑑑𑑙𑑘𑑒)𑑋

𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐬𑐹𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐮𑐎𑑂𑐲𑑂𑐩𑐷 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐡𑑀𑐮𑐏𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑑀𑐢𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐫 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐟 𑑋 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑐜𑐶𑐏𑑂𑐫𑑅 𑐥𑐴𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑑅 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣, 𑐮𑐑𑐸 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐥𑐴𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄 [Ü], 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐀𑐫𑑂, 𑐀, 𑐁, 𑐁𑐫𑑂) 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐄 [Ü] 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐎𑑄 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐬𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐮𑐸𑐂𑐎𑐾 𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐟 𑑋 ‘𑐀𑐫𑑂’ 𑐰 ‘𑐁𑐫𑑂’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐜𑐵. 𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐮𑐊 𑐰𑐣𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐 (𑐃𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑙𑑙𑑐) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑀𑐮 𑐂𑐮𑐾𑐣 𑐖𑐾𑐣𑐾𑐚𑐷𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐧𑑂 A Descriptive and Historical Account of The Dolakha Newari Dialect 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐡𑑀𑐮𑐏𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐏𑐸𑐐𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐌, 𑐀, 𑐁) 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐰 𑐱𑑀𑐢𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐩𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑗 (𑐃𑐳𑑄𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑗) 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑐵𑐛 𑐟𑐣𑐵𑑅 A Grammar of Dolakha 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐰 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐡𑑀𑐮𑐏𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣𑐊 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑐕𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐧𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐧𑐮𑐵𑐑𑐵𑐟 (stress), 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐟𑐵𑐣 (intonation) 𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐰𑐞𑐶𑐎 (Acoustic analysis) 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐣 𑐡𑑀𑐮𑐏𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀 ‘𑐁’ 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐀𑐐𑑂𑐬 𑐣𑐶𑐩𑑂𑐣 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐥𑐶𑐚𑐬 𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐦𑑀𑐐𑐾𑐡𑑄 (𑐤𑐹𑐐𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐬𑐞)‘𑐁’ 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐶𑐩𑑂𑐣 𑐥𑐱𑑂𑐔 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐣𑐶𑐎𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑖𑑙(𑑙𑑖) 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑐 (𑐃𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑐) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐖𑐸𑑄 Verb Morphology in the Tansen Dialect of Nepal Bhasha 𑐀𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐖𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐊𑐩𑐊 𑐄𑐥𑐵𑐢𑐶 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐟𑐵𑐣𑐳𑐾𑐣 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣 𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐳𑐦𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 –𑐊 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑒 (𑐃𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑒) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐥𑑀𑐏𑐬𑐵 𑐬 𑐎𑐵𑐛𑐩𑐵𑐜𑑁(𑐥𑐵𑐚𑐣𑐎𑑀 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐩𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣 𑐨𑐾𑐡 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐥𑑀𑐏𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐣 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 ‘–𑐊’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑐 (𑐃𑐳 𑑒𑑐𑑑𑑐) 𑐡𑑃𑐊 A Grammar of Pahari 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑑀𑐢𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐥𑐴𑐬𑐷𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀 𑐏𑐸𑐐𑑅 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐌, 𑐀,𑐁) 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐰 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞, 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑐶𑑄 (Diacritics) 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐀𑐗 𑐰 𑐔𑐶𑑄 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐔𑐶𑐣𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐴 𑐣𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑑅𑑒𑑐𑑑𑑐𑑅𑑖𑑓–𑑖𑑔) 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐧𑐵𑐮𑐐𑑀𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐖𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑐮𑐷𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐀𑐨𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐣 𑐖𑑀𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐗𑐵𑐮 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐹𑐮 𑐏𑑃 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐊 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐐 𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑐮,𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐬 𑐰 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐣𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐳𑐬𑐮 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑐮 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 ‘𑐴, 𑐑, 𑐗, 𑐝, 𑐢, 𑐨 𑐯, 𑐤, 𑐪’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐣𑐾 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐐 𑐟𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐾 𑐒, 𑐘, 𑐞,𑐣,𑐩 𑐊 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐬, 𑐀𑐣𑐣𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎 𑐟𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐩𑐣𑐹 𑐟𑐊 𑐩𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐰𑑅 𑑋 𑐕𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑐊 ? 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐄𑐥𑐵𑐫 𑐡𑐊𑐦𑐸, 𑐩𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐬𑐹𑐬𑐷 𑐠𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐣 𑑋

𑑑.𑑖.𑑑 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐹𑐟𑐶

𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑙 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗 𑐟𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑑒𑑘𑐪 𑐔𑑀𑐩𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑑕𑑐 𑐐𑐹 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐾𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐺𑐟 𑐖𑐵𑐣𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃) 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐊 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐾𑐕𑐶𑑄 𑑋

(𑐎) 𑐊–𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 (𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐖𑐐𑐟𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮 (𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑕), 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 (𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑐,𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑) 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐡𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐰 ‘𑐫𑐾–𑐫𑑂’ 𑐄𑐨𑐫 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐩𑐖𑐹 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶, 𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑑅 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐾 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐀𑐣 𑐏𑑃 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑑋 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐸𑐏𑐵𑑄 𑐡𑐸𑐴𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑐳𑐾𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐀𑐣 𑐣𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐹 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋

(𑐏) 𑐫𑑂–𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐢𑐬 ‘𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫’ (𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑗), 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒,𑑒𑑐𑑖𑑐), 𑐬𑐹𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐮𑐎𑑂𑐲𑑂𑐩𑐷 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐,𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑑), 𑐟𑐸𑐮𑐳𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐮 𑐳𑐶𑑄 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒) 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑐮𑑄 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣𑐊 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐂 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 (𑐊 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐠𑑄 ‘–𑐫𑑂’ 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐥𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋

(𑐐) 𑐫–𑐀𑐖𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐖𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐵𑐮 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫 (𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕) 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐫’ 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋

(𑐑) 𑐫𑐾 𑐰 𑐫𑑂–𑐄𑐨𑐫 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐱𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 (𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘), 𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫𑐔𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐶𑑄𑐴 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣 (𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑘), 𑐥𑐸𑐲𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 ‘𑐳𑐵𑐐𑐬’ (𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑒), 𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐳𑐶𑑄 (𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑕), 𑐳𑐸𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐥𑐶𑐰𑐵 (𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑖), 𑐳𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐩𑑀𑐴𑐣 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷 (𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑘), 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 (𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑑), 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵 (𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙, 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑙,𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑, 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑,𑐎) 𑐂𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡 (𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑓, 𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑗, 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑), 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚 (𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑, 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑔), 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐸𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐, 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑘, 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑗 𑑋 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑘, 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑒), 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐞𑐸 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐), 𑐧𑐵𑐮𑐐𑑀𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 (𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗) 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅𑑋

𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐫𑐾–𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐰𑐵𑐡𑐷 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐪𑐳𑐷𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐳𑑀𑐠𑐷 (𑐎) 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐊 ‘𑐫’, (𑐳, 𑐔, 𑐖) 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑑋

(𑐒) 𑐥𑐱𑑂𑐔𑐶𑐩𑐵– 𑐏𑐵𑐳𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐀𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐖𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑃 𑐫𑐵𑐂𑐥𑐶 𑐱𑐶𑐱𑐶𑐬𑐎𑐸𑐩𑐵𑐬 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐶𑐟 (𑑑𑑙𑑗𑑘), 𑐟𑐾𑐖𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬 (𑑑𑑙𑑗𑑙), 𑐎𑐩𑐮𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮 (𑑑𑑙𑑘𑑕), 𑐀𑐲𑑂𑐚𑐶𑐣 𑐴𑐾𑐮 (𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑖) 𑐰 𑐩𑐾𑐩𑐾𑐥𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐥𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐥𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐐𑐸 (‘𑐫’,‘𑐫𑑂’, ‘𑐫𑐾’,’𑐊’) 𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 -e 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸, 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑑑.𑑗 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶

𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐵𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐡𑐿 𑑋 𑐰 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐟 (𑑑) 𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫), (𑑒) 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟, (𑑓) 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐰 (𑑔) 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 𑐡𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐾𑑄𑐐𑐹 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐾𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋

𑑑.𑑗.𑑑 𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫)

𑐥𑐸𑐣𑐬𑐵𑐰𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐕𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐰𑐵𑐮𑐾 𑑋 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑐸𑐔𑐮𑐊 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 (𑐒)𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐵 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐮 𑑋 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 (𑐐) 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐖𑑅 𑐖𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐵𑐮 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐥𑑁𑐫𑐵 (𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑅𑑗(𑑙) 𑐕𑐪 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑀𑐟𑐵 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐃 ‘𑐫’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 (𑐑) 𑐊 𑐧𑐶𑐮𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 (𑐏) 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐊 𑐀𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐧𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑐮𑐊 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐍𑐥𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐎 𑐄𑐥𑐵𑐢𑐶 𑐎𑐵𑑅𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 (𑐑) 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲, 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐳𑑄𑐑𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐬, 𑐰 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐎 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐊 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐡𑐎𑐮𑐾 𑐁𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐮𑐣 𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑐮𑐊 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 (𑐎) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐣𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐞 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐊 𑐩𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑐬 𑐖𑐐𑐟𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮𑑄 𑐴𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐟𑐵 𑐩𑐡𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑁𑐎𑐤𑐊 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 (𑐏) 𑐰 (𑐑) 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑐮𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐢𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑃𑐊 𑐳𑐸𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅(𑐏) 𑐰 (𑐑) 𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐎𑐜 𑐰 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐮𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐹𑐮 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐵𑐐𑑅 (𑐔𑐫𑐫𑐟) 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐠𑐣 𑐮𑐾𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋

𑑑.𑑗.𑑒 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟

𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅(𑐏) 𑐰 (𑐑)𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐵𑐮𑐾 𑐤𑐾𑐰 𑐰𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐤𑐾𑐠𑐣𑐾–

(𑐔) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 (𑐂, 𑐄, 𑐊, 𑐀, 𑐁) 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐡𑐎𑑀𑐳𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐴𑐩𑐟𑐶 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑑋

(𑐕) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐁𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐷𑐫 (syllabic) 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐏𑑅𑑋

(𑐖) 𑐡𑐿𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋

(𑐗) 𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐷 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 (Economy and efficiency) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐏𑑅 𑑋

(𑐘) 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋

𑑑.𑑗.𑑓 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞

𑐁𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐟𑑅 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐹 𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐰𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂–𑐫𑐾’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐧𑐴𑐳 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐎𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐐𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐣𑐊 𑐫𑑂– 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐷 𑐳𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐾 ‘𑐫𑑂–𑐫𑐾’𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐫𑑂–𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰 ‘𑐫𑑂–𑐫𑐾’ 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐫 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐥𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐊’𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐩𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑀𑐊–

(𑐀) (i) 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐊 ‘𑐫’, (ii) (𑐳, 𑐔, 𑐖) 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’, (iii) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑑋

(𑐁) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 𑐣𑑄 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑑋 (𑐂) 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑑋

𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐀) 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐊 ‘𑐫’, (𑐳, 𑐔, 𑐖) 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 ‘𑐫𑐾’

(i) 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐊 ‘𑐫’,

𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑑅 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 (Axiom) 𑐏𑑃 𑐯𑐵𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐮

(ii) ‘𑐳, 𑐔, 𑐖’ 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸

𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 ‘𑐳, 𑐔, 𑐖’ 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐟𑑅 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐥𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 (𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣) 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 (Morphophonemic process) 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄 𑐀𑐑𑑀𑐲𑐷𑐎𑐬𑐞 [Devocalization] 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣 𑐡𑐸𑐳𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐀𑐣𑐮𑐶 𑐡𑐸𑐳𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐳𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐤𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐳𑐵𑐮𑐷, 𑐥𑐬𑐐𑐟𑐳𑐩𑐷𑐨𑐰𑐣 (Regrssive assimilation) 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐰𑐺𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐶 (vowel rising) 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐀𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐬𑐞 [Frontization or vowel fronting] 𑐣𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 [umlaut] 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫 𑐀𑐐𑑂𑐬 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 (Mid front vowel) ‘𑐊’(e) 𑐮𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐟𑐖𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐠𑐾𑑄) 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐾 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶 𑐮𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐮𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐏𑑃 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐣 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐳𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑐸𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐊 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐾𑐕𑐶𑑄 𑑋

𑐦𑐳 > 𑐦 – 𑐀, 𑐳𑑂 – 𑐀, > 𑐦 – 𑐀, 𑐴 – 𑐀 [Devocalization]

> 𑐦 – 𑐀, 𑐊 [Frontization /vowel fronting]

> 𑐦𑐊 ‘air’

𑐐𑑀𑐔 > 𑐐 – 𑐌, 𑐔𑑂 – 𑐀, > 𑐐 – 𑐌, 𑐴 – 𑐀, [Devocalization]

> 𑐐𑑂 – 𑐌, 𑐊 [Frontization /vowel fronting]

> 𑐐𑑀𑐊 ‘betel nut’

𑐨𑑀𑐖 > 𑐨𑑂 – 𑐌, 𑐖𑑂 – 𑐀, 𑐱𑑂> 𑐨𑑂 – 𑐌, 𑐴 – 𑐀, , [Devocalization]

> 𑐨𑑂 – 𑐌, 𑐊 [Frontization /vowel fronting]

> 𑐨𑑀𑐊 ‘Feast’ 𑑋

𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚 (𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑, 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑔), 𑐖𑐸𑑄 [Frontization / vowel fronting] 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐩𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐢𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐷𑐎𑐬𑐞 [palatalization] 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋

(𑐲𑑂𑐲𑑂𑐲𑑂) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸

𑐏𑑀𑐥𑐊 𑐁𑑅𑐣𑑄 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐂𑐧𑐮𑐾 ‘𑐳𑑀𑐫’, ‘𑐧𑑀𑐫’, ‘𑐡𑐶𑐫’ 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎 𑐔𑐮𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐄𑐮𑐶𑐖𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐀𑐨𑐶𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐷𑐫 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐁𑑅 𑐣 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐮𑐸𑐂𑐎𑐾 𑐦𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐣 𑐔𑑀𑐊 [(𑐀)( ii)] 𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑑄 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋

𑐳𑑀𑐫 > 𑐳𑑂 – 𑐌, 𑐫𑑂 – 𑐀, > 𑐳𑑂 – 𑐌, 𑐴 – 𑐀, [Devocalization/ Depalatization]

> 𑐳𑑂 – 𑐌, 𑐊 [Frontization /vowel fronting]

> 𑐳𑑀𑐊 to see’ 𑑋

𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅 – 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐊 ‘𑐫’, (𑐳, 𑐔, 𑐖) 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’, 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐞𑐶𑐟 𑐩𑐖𑐹 𑑋 𑐧𑐬𑐹 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑑄 ‘(𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐟 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞𑑄 𑐧𑑅 𑐧𑐶𑐮 𑑋

𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐁) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸

𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑅𑑑𑑐𑑑, 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑂𑑒𑑐𑑖𑑐𑑅𑑙𑑐) 𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐬𑐹𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵 (𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑙𑐳𑑔𑑓) 𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐷𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂 + 𑐊 = 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾,

𑐎𑐣𑑂 + 𑐊 = 𑐎𑐣𑐾,

𑐴𑐵𑐮𑑂 + 𑐊 = 𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐾,

𑐪𑐶𑐟𑑂 + 𑐊 = 𑐪𑐶𑐟𑐾,

𑐨𑐥𑑂 + 𑐊 = 𑐨𑐥𑐾

𑐥𑐬𑑂‍𑐎𑑂 + 𑐊 = 𑐥𑐬𑑂‍𑐎𑐾

𑐫𑐾–𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑐴𑐳𑐫𑐵 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐠𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑅𑑑𑑐𑑑, 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑂𑑒𑑐𑑖𑑐𑑅𑑙𑑐) 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐎𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐀𑐣 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑑀𑐟 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐡𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐶𑐎 𑐂𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐶 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐟𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐰 𑐕𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐏𑑀𑐥𑐊 𑐁𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐡𑐣𑐷𑐐𑐸 ‘𑐎𑐵𑐫 ‘𑐟𑐫 take’, 𑐡𑐷𑐫 ‘𑐟𑐫 be’, 𑐳𑑀𑐫 ‘𑐟𑐫 see’’ 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐎𑐠 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐠𑐣𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐰 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐡𑐸𑐰𑐵𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐳𑑀𑐮𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐕𑐟𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐶𑐴𑐵𑑄𑐰𑐂 𑑋 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸𑑄 (𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑅𑑙𑑔(𑑑𑑒𑑗) 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐧𑑀𑐠𑐮𑐵 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸

𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐨𑐹𑐟

𑐣–𑐫𑐾 (𑐣𑑂–𑐀, 𑐫𑑂(𑐊) 𑐣(𑐫𑐵 (𑐣𑑂–𑐀, 𑐫𑑂(𑐁)

𑐡𑐵–𑐫𑐾 (𑐡𑑂–𑐁, 𑐫𑑂(𑐊) 𑐡𑐵–𑐫𑐵 (𑐡–𑐁, 𑐫𑑂(𑐁)

𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐰 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐪𑐳𑐶𑐣𑑄 𑐣 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐥𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑑅𑐎𑐶 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 ‘𑐣𑐫𑑂’ (𑐣𑑂 – 𑐀 – 𑐫𑑂) 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸𑑄 ‘𑐣’(𑐣𑑂 – 𑐀) 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑑄𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐳 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐸𑐥 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑐵𑑅𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐕𑐟𑐵𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐣𑐶𑐪𑐳𑐶𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑑄 𑐎𑐶 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟, 𑐟𑐬 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐮𑐵 ? 𑐠𑑀 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐡𑐊 𑐣𑐶𑐪𑐳𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐧𑑅𑐎𑐫𑐵𑑅 ‘𑐣’ 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐮𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐡 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐟𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎 ‘𑐣𑐫𑑂 – 𑐊 . 𑐣𑐫𑐾’ 𑐰 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎 ‘𑐣 – 𑐫𑐾 . 𑐣𑐫𑐾’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐣 – 𑑐 – 𑐊 . 𑐣𑐊’ ‘𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐫𑐾𑑃–𑐫𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐀𑑅𑐥𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐄𑐥𑐵𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐏𑑀𑐥𑐫𑐵 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐦𑐸–

𑐣–𑐫𑑂–𑐊 𑐣–𑐫𑑂–𑐁

𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐷 𑐡𑐠𑐸𑐂 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐢𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 (–𑐫𑑂–) 𑐁𑐐𑐩 (epenthesis) 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐁𑐐𑐩 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐷 (𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐰 𑐏𑐊) 𑐟𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐂𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐏𑐵𑐳𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔 𑐰 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐊 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐁𑐐𑐩 𑐫𑐾𑑃–𑐫𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 𑐟𑐣𑐵𑐰𑐣𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐮, 𑐟𑐬 𑐏𑑀𑐥𑐊 𑐡𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐞 𑐫𑐾𑑃(𑐫𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐨𑐸𑐟𑐊 (𑐣–𑐫𑑂–𑐁 . 𑐣𑐫𑐵) 𑐡 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐣𑐶 𑑋

(𑐁)𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅

𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐰𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐏𑐸 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐶𑐪𑐳𑐶𑐣𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐷 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐏𑑃 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑄 𑐣 𑐥𑐵𑐊𑐕𑐶 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐁𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐶𑐎 𑐳𑑄𑐬𑐔𑐣𑐵 (syllabic structure) 𑐳𑑀𑐊𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐳𑑄𑐟𑐸𑐮𑐣 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀𑐠𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐴𑐾 𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐩𑐷𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐷 𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐫𑐹𑐣𑐶𑐎𑑀𑐜𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐩𑐿𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐳𑐬𑐮 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋

𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐂) 𑐡𑐎𑑀𑐠𑐵𑐳𑑄 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅

𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐀) 𑐰 (𑐁) 𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑑄𑐐𑑅 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐬𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑑄 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐰𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 ‘𑐊’𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐡𑐿𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐣 𑐠𑐣 𑐥𑐹𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑑄 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎, 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟, 𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵, 𑐀𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐊 𑐦𑐿𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐠𑑀 𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐷 𑐣𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐵𑐥 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐚𑐵𑐂𑐥 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟, 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐳𑐾 𑐖𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐷𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟𑐳𑐾 𑐣𑑄 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐖𑐶𑐎 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐦𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐬𑐮 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐣 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 ‘𑐫’ 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐔𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐣𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐊 𑐀𑑅𑐥𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾 > 𑐎𑐾𑐮𑐾, 𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐊 > 𑐏𑐾𑐮𑐊, 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐊 > 𑐕𑐾𑐣𑐊, 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾 > 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋

𑑑.𑑗.𑑔 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑀𑑅

[𑐀 (ii), 𑐰 (iii)] 𑐰 (𑐁) 𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑑀𑐠𑐵𑐳𑑄 (𑐳, 𑐔, 𑐖) 𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐨𑐰 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐊 𑐰 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐴𑐾 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋

𑑑.𑑘 𑐮𑐶𑐏𑑃

𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑑𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗 𑐟𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑑒𑑕𑐪 𑐔𑑀𑐩𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑑓𑑗 𑐦𑐶 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐾𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐡𑐎𑐮𑐾 𑐁𑐥𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐡𑐸𑐪 𑐔𑑀𑐩𑐶 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐸𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑐸𑐦𑐶 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐾𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐡𑐎𑐮𑐾 𑐀𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐶𑐬 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐀𑐒𑑂𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐖𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐦𑐶 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐮𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐀𑐣 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰 𑐀𑐖𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐰𑐮 𑑋 𑐩𑐾𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐷 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐤𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐠𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐔𑐶𑐄𑐟𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐟 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐰𑐊 𑐤𑐾𑐰 𑐰 𑐮𑐶𑐄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐶𑐧𑑀 𑐠𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑃 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑃 𑐣𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐔𑐶𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐝𑐵𑑃𑐔𑐵𑐊 𑐔𑑀𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐏𑐸𑐳𑐵 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐩𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐊 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐂𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐴𑐮𑑄𑐖𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐊𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐔𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐎𑐵 𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐷 𑐴𑐾 𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐟𑐾𑐖𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐫𑐾𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑐣𑐎 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐊 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐖𑐣𑑂𑐩, 𑐰 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅 𑐥𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐵𑐪 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐰𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑑋 𑐀𑐗 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐥𑐹 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐹𑐳𑐵 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐸𑐐𑑅 𑐢𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐟𑐬 𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐴 𑐀𑐒𑑂𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐖𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐶𑐏𑐵 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐢𑐿𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 ‘𑐀𑐊’ 𑐰 ‘𑐁𑐊’𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐾𑐦𑐸𑐳𑐵 𑐀𑐗 𑐟𑐶𑐦𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐊 𑐦𑐂 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 ‘𑐌’ 𑐮𑐵 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐬𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐖𑐎 ‘𑐌’ 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅, 𑐟𑐬 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐳𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰 𑐋𑐟𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑑁𑐧𑐖𑐶 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰 𑐧𑐖𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾𑑄 𑐰𑐊𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐠𑑅𑐟 𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐴𑐊 𑐩𑐦𑐸, 𑐩𑐾𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐣 𑐮𑑃 𑐥𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑 𑐡𑑃 𑐤𑐾𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐩𑐾𑐩𑐾𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐥𑐶𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾’ 𑐴𑐾 𑐩𑐐𑑂𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐣𑐶 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐷𑐰𑐶𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐖𑐷𑐰𑐶𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬 𑐥𑐎𑑂𑐲 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐩𑐣𑐹 𑐩𑐔𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐂, 𑐩𑐔𑐵𑑄 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐾, 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐪, 𑐧𑐵𑐖𑑂𑐫 𑐰𑐣𑐷, 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐠𑑅 𑐖𑐶𑐠𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐩𑐡𑐂, 𑐠𑑀 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶𑐎 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐏𑑅, 𑐔𑐎𑑂𑐬 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐡𑑀𑐮𑑄𑐡𑑀𑑅 𑐡𑑃𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟 𑐡𑐸, 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑑄 𑐡𑐸, 𑐟𑐬 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐣 𑑋 𑐩𑐣𑐸𑐏𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑐮 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐟𑐮 𑑋 𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟 𑐳𑐨𑑂𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑅𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐔𑑀𑐊 𑐳𑐊𑐎𑐮, 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐴𑐮 𑑋 𑐃 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐮, 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐊 𑐣𑑄 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐮 𑑋 𑐩𑐣𑐸𑐏𑑄 𑐠𑑅𑐟 𑐀𑑅𑐥𑐸𑐂𑐎 𑐔𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑑋 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐄𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑙𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐰𑐮 𑑋 𑐕𑐠𑑀𑑅 𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟𑐳𑐾 𑐠𑑀 𑐎𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐵𑐬 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐧𑑀𑑅 𑐧𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐩𑐾𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐰 𑐴𑐾 𑐎𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐵𑐬𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐮𑐶𑐄 𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑑁 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐰 𑐴𑐾 𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐣 𑐩𑐶𑐖𑐵𑐳 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐨𑐟𑐶𑐔𑐵 𑐀𑑅𑐥𑐸𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐯𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐶 𑐴𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐳𑐾𑑄𑐎𑐮 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑅 𑐀𑐬𑐞𑑂𑐫𑐬𑑀𑐡𑐣 𑐖𑐎 𑐏𑑅 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟 𑐠𑑁𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐹𑐮 𑐖𑐣𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑑕 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐱𑐟 𑐖𑐎 𑐡𑐣𑐶 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐳𑐣𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐯𑐵𑐂𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐎𑐹𑐮 𑐖𑐣𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑑓.𑑑𑑙 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐱𑐟 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐹𑐮 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐖𑐣𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑑖𑑔 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐱𑐟 𑐖𑐎 𑐡𑐸 (CBS;2011) 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐷𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐮𑐵 𑐎𑐹𑐮 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐖𑐣𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑑑 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐱𑐟 𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐫𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐶 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑑄𑐎𑐜𑐵 𑐗𑐷𑐎𑐾 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐂𑐮𑐊 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐖𑐣𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅, 𑐄𑐩𑐶𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐊 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾 𑐫𑐂𑐐𑐸, 𑐦𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑑅𑐎𑐳 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐎𑐮 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐶𑐟𑐿𑐲𑐷, 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐬𑐩 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐎 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑐢𑐬𑑂‍𑐩, 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐠𑑀 𑐴𑐾 𑐏𑑅𑑋 𑐮𑐎𑐳 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐹 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐷– 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐳𑑄𑐬𑐔𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐟 𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐣𑐵 (corpus planning), 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐐𑐟 𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐣𑐵 (status planning) 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐳𑑄𑐬𑐔𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐟 𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞, 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐮𑑀𑐊𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐴𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐖𑐾 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐶𑐟 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐰 𑐎𑑀𑐱 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐩𑐵𑐟𑐺𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐣𑐷𑐫𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐴𑐮𑑄𑐖𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐜𑐶𑐖𑐶𑐚𑐵𑐂𑐖 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐩𑐵𑐟𑐺𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑄 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐺𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐐𑐟 𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣, 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐵 𑐰 𑐳𑑄𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐊 𑐠𑐾𑑄𑐎𑐾𑐟 𑐳𑑀𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐶𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐮𑑀𑐊𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐴𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐖𑐾 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐶𑐟 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐗𑐷𑐳𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐪𑐳𑐶𑐣𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐟 𑐝𑑄𑐐𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐧𑐵𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐮𑐵𑐂 𑑋

𑐁𑑅𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐊 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐟𑑅 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐹 𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐰𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂–𑐫𑐾’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 𑐧𑐴𑐳 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐎𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐐𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐣𑐊 𑐫𑑂– 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐷 𑐳𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐾 ‘𑐫𑑂–𑐫𑐾’ 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐩𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐵 (𑐀) 𑐰 (𑐁) 𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐲𑐞𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑑄𑐐𑑅 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐬𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑑄 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐰𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑑅 ‘𑐊’𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐂 𑑋 𑐡𑐿𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐰𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑐣 𑐥𑐹𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑑄 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐩, 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎, 𑐁𑐟𑑂𑐩 𑐀𑐨𑐹𑐟, 𑐳𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐵, 𑐀𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 𑐴𑐾 𑐔𑑀𑐊 𑐦𑐿𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐷 𑐣𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐣𑐵𑐥 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐡𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐚𑐵𑐂𑐥 𑐫𑐵𑐊𑐟, 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐖𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐷 𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟𑐳𑐾 𑐣𑑄 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐖𑐶𑐎 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐦𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐬𑐮 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐨𑐵𑐰𑐱𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑑄 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐟 𑑋 ‘𑐫’ 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐔𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐣𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐊 𑐀𑐥𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾 > 𑐎𑐾𑐮𑐾, 𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐊 > 𑐏𑐾𑐮𑐊, 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐊 > 𑐕𑐾𑐣𑐊, 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾 > 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋

𑐕𑐗𑑀𑐮𑑄 𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐢𑐵𑐊𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐫𑑂–𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰 ‘𑐫𑑂–𑐫𑐾’ 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐳𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐫 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐥𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐊 ‘𑐊’ 𑐩𑐵𑐐𑑀𑑅 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐳𑐷 𑐡𑐟 𑑋

𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵

𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑑑 : 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵

𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 (𑑒𑑐𑐥𑐾𑐖 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐔𑐵) 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐏𑑃𑐊 ‘𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐰𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐊 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐬𑐸𑐥 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐁𑐥𑐵𑐮𑑄 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹, 𑐩𑐕𑐶𑑄 𑐰 𑐥𑑄𑐐𑐮𑑄 𑐟𑐟𑐩𑐟 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐀𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐶𑐬𑐟𑐵 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐩𑐶𑐟 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑑅 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐹 𑐮𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸, 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐢𑐣, 𑐠𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐠𑐶 𑐰 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐷𑐟 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑑄 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐊 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐫𑐾𑑃𑐡𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐄𑐎𑐷 𑐣𑑄 𑐱𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐶𑐟 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐟𑐫𑑂𑐳𑑄 𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐠𑐣 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑑅𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐩𑐖𑐶𑐩𑐐𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐧𑐵𑐬𑐾 𑐖𑐎 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐏𑑃 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐂’ 𑑋 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐫𑐵𑐟 (𑑑) 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑, (𑑒) 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐐 – 𑐀𑐰𑐶𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐐, (𑑓) 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐣𑐵𑐳𑐶𑐎– 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐬, (𑑔) 𑐔𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐳𑑅 𑐟𑐳𑑂𑐳𑑅, (𑑕) 𑐫𑐾– 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, (𑑖) 𑐫𑑂–𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟, (𑑗) 𑐥𑐡𑐫𑑀𑐐–𑐥𑐡𑐰𑐶𑐫𑑀𑐐, (𑑘) 𑐥𑐵𑐴𑐵𑑃 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅, (𑑙) 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐏𑑃 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐐𑐸𑐧𑑀 𑐠𑐮𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐂𑐎𑐵𑐂 𑑕 𑐫𑐵 𑑕.𑑑 𑐊 ‘𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑐾, 𑐮𑐾, 𑐟𑐾, 𑐥𑐾, 𑐎𑐾, 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 (𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾, 𑐤𑐶𑐮𑐾, 𑐣𑐎𑐾, 𑐳𑑅𑐟𑐾, 𑐨𑐥𑐾) 𑐊–𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 (𑐊–𑐮𑐶𑐄) 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑐾 𑐫(𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐊–𑐮𑐶𑐄 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑅 𑐁𑐏𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾 (𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂) 𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐾, 𑐦𑐫𑐾 (𑐦𑐫𑑂) 𑐫𑐵 𑐦𑐾 𑐰𑐵 𑐦𑑂𑐫𑐾, 𑐣𑐫𑐾 (𑐣𑐫𑑂) 𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾 𑐰𑐵 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾, 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐕𑐐𑑅𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 (𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑𑑅𑑑𑑑)’𑑋

𑑕.𑑒 ‘𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐠𑐩 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐹𑐲𑐫𑑂 𑐏𑑃𑐥𑐸 (𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫) 𑐰𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅 (𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐱) 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐄 𑐰𑐮 𑐎𑐶 ‘𑐫𑐾’ (‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐐𑐮𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐩𑐏𑐸) 𑐩𑐾𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐂(𑐄𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐩𑐹𑐮 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐂’ 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐫𑐾 𑐮𑐶𑐄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 –𑐏𑑃𑐥𑐸 𑐬 𑐏𑑃𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐮𑐶𑐄– 𑐖𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐫𑐾 𑑋 𑐗𑐷𑐳𑑄 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑑋 𑐣𑐫𑐾 𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 𑐩𑐾𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐣, 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐟, 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾, 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐣, 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐟, 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾 (𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐎𑐾), 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 (𑐥𑐺.𑑑𑑒) 𑐂–𑐄𑐎𑐵𑐬 (𑐧𑐶𑐂 (𑐧𑐷), 𑐧𑐶𑐂𑐐𑐸 (𑐧𑐷𑐐𑐸), 𑐏𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 (𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐷), 𑐏𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸 (𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐐𑐸), 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 (𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐾–𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐏𑐸𑐫𑐾–𑐏𑐸𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹)’ 𑑋

𑑕.𑑓 ‘ 𑐫𑐾– 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾’ 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐷 𑐨𑐹𑐟 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐮’ 𑐰 ‘𑐎𑐾’ 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐷 𑐨𑐸𑐟𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐟’ 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸, 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐴𑐾 𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎 (𑐀𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵) 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐠𑐩𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐹𑐲 𑐨𑐹𑐟𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐰 𑐣𑐵𑑅𑐬𑐣𑐵 𑐰𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐕𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐎 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐢 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑑅–

𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎

(𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐧𑐵) 𑐎𑐵𑐮–𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾, 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑄–𑐕𑐵𑐮–𑐕𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾 (𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸) 𑑋 (𑐏𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄 )–𑐎𑐵𑐟–𑐎𑐵𑐎𑐾, (𑐮𑐿𑑄) 𑐕𑐵𑐟–𑐕𑐵𑐎𑐾 (𑐎𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐂𑐐𑐸) 𑑋

𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎 𑐰 𑐨𑐹𑐟𑐎𑐵𑐮

𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾– 𑐎𑐵𑐮– 𑐎𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐎𑐫𑐵 (𑐮–𑐫𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐫𑐵) 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾– 𑐎𑐵𑐟– 𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵 (𑐟–𑐣𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐣𑐵)

𑐕𑐵𑐫𑐾– 𑐕𑐵𑐮–𑐕𑐵𑐫𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐕𑐵𑐫𑐵 (𑐮–𑐫𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐫𑐵) 𑐕𑐵𑐟– 𑐕𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐕𑐵𑐣𑐵 (𑐟–𑐣𑐵𑑅𑐣𑐵) 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋

𑑖. 𑐫𑑂 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 (𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶 𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐯𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸)

𑑖.𑑑 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵 𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐏𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐳, 𑐔, 𑐖, 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐾𑐳𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐂–𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐂) 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐮𑑄 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐩𑐵 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾–

𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂–𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐔𑑄, 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐔𑐫𑑂 𑐳 𑐧𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐫𑑂– 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐔𑑄, 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐫𑑂, 𑐎𑐸𑑃𑐂– 𑐎𑐹𑐔𑑄, 𑐎𑐸𑐔𑐫𑑂, 𑐴𑑃𑐫𑑂(𑐴𑑃𑐳𑑄, 𑐴𑑃𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐾, 𑐨𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂– 𑐨𑑂𑐰𑐖𑑄, 𑐨𑑂𑐰𑐖𑐫𑑂 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋

𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐎𑐤𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐮𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐁𑐏𑑅 (𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟) 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐩𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐀𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐢𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 (𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐬𑐵𑐩 𑐰𑐮, 𑐡𑐵𑐣 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐸, 𑐱𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐥𑐠 𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐡𑐸, 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋) 𑐕𑐳𑐮𑑄 𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐵𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐫𑑂, 𑐁𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐵𑐁𑐏𑑅𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐮𑐶–𑐮𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐳𑐵 𑐏𑑅 𑑋 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐂–𑐄𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐮𑐶𑐄 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐂’ 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐰𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐁𑐏𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐀𑐫𑑂 𑐁𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐔𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑑄 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐐𑑅 𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐩𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐮𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅𑑋

𑑖.𑑒 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐷𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑐶𑑄 ‘𑐳’𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑄 𑐰 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐏𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐀𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐣𑑄 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑄 𑐩𑐣𑐾, 𑐢𑐣𑐾, 𑐥𑐳𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐩𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, 𑐮𑐵𑐳𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐡𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑐾 𑐩𑐣𑐫𑑂, 𑐢𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐎 ‘𑐫’ 𑐟𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋 …

𑑖.𑑓 𑐠𑑅𑐠𑐰𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐎 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐀𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫 – 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐣𑐾, 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾, 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾, 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐾, 𑐠𑐣𑐾, 𑐎𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾, 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾, 𑐟𑑅𑐮𑐾, 𑐧𑐵𑐬𑐾, 𑐬𑐶𑐏𑐾, 𑐠𑐸𑐏𑐾, 𑐄𑐏𑐾, 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐾, 𑐀𑐮𑐾, 𑐁𑐡𑐶𑐂 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 ‘𑐫’(𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾𑐫𑑂, 𑐧𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐵 𑐧𑐮𑐾𑐫𑑂, 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹) 𑑋

𑑖.𑑔 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐮𑐣𑐫𑑂 (𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐬𑐹𑐥) 𑐳,𑐔, 𑐖 (𑐰𑐵 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸) 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐫’ 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐄𑐎𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 ‘𑐊’ 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾– 𑐎𑐤𑐫𑑂 (𑐎𑐤𑐳) 𑐎𑐤𑐾 (𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸), 𑐰𑐣𑐫𑑂 (𑐰𑐣𑐳) 𑐰𑐣𑐾 (𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸), 𑐮𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 (𑐮𑑂𑐰𑐔)( 𑐮𑑂𑐰𑐾 (𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸), 𑐨𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 (𑐨𑑂𑐰𑐖)– 𑐨𑑂𑐰𑐾 (𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸) 𑑋

𑑖.𑑕 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑑂𑐰𑐳𑑅𑐎𑐠𑑄 ‘𑐀𑐫𑑂’ ‘𑐁𑐫𑑂’ 𑐠𑐾 𑐕𑐳𑑅 𑐏𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐫𑑂 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶 𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐯𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾– 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫 (𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅) 𑐏𑑅 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐨𑐫 𑐏𑑅 𑐨𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐁𑐫 𑐏𑑅 𑐁𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐮𑐫 𑐏𑑅 𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋

𑑖.𑑖 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐶 𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐏𑐣𑐾𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑐏𑐾 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐮𑑄 (𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐬𑐹𑐥) 𑐪𑐩𑐳𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐕𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐁𑐥𑐮𑑄 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐮𑐫𑑂 (𑐮𑐾) 𑐰 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐥( 𑐢𑑁𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐏𑐫𑑂 (𑐏𑐾) 𑐟𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑐮𑐣 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐠𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐫𑑂 𑐟𑐺𑐟𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐣𑑄’ 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾– 𑐧𑑁𑐣𑑄, 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀𑐣𑑄, 𑑒𑑐𑐣𑑄, 𑐣𑐸𑐐𑑅𑐣𑑄 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 𑐮𑐫𑑂 (𑐏𑐫𑑂) 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐮𑑄 𑐳𑐶𑐂𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾 𑐖𑐶𑐄𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐟𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 𑑋 𑐎𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑑅𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑑀 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 (𑐎) 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐥𑐮𑑄 𑐩𑐕𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑑁 (𑐧𑐮𑐶) – 𑐧𑑁𑐮𑐾, 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 (𑐏) 𑐌, (𑐍), 𑐫, 𑐂, 𑐴 𑐮𑐶𑐄 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸– 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂, ‘𑐗𑐷’𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑐟𑐬𑐵𑐂𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑐳𑐩𑐸𑐴𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 (𑐐) 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅 (𑐀𑐒𑑂𑐎) 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐄– 𑑒𑑐𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑑓𑑕𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑑑𑑐𑑕𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 (𑐑) 𑐯𑑂𑐫𑐳𑐵 (𑐄𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐞) – ‘𑐣𑐸𑐐𑑅’ 𑐮𑐫𑑂, ‘𑐩𑐸𑐣𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑄’ 𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑑋 𑐠𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐮𑐫𑑂’ 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐬𑐹𑐥 ‘𑐳’𑐕𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 𑐦𑐫𑐵𑐦𑐎𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐮𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐂, 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐵 𑐳𑐟𑐴𑐫𑑂, 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀𑐫𑑂, 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐫𑑂– 𑐎𑐠𑑄 ‘𑐫’ 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑑄𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 (𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑𑑅𑑑𑑑–𑑑𑑕) 𑑋

𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑑒 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐮𑐔𑑄 (𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚, 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫)

𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐵𑐡𑐣𑐊 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐 𑐡𑑃𑐊 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐮𑐔𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐣𑑀𑐨𑐾𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐬 𑑒𑑔, 𑑑𑑙𑑘𑑔 (𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑔 𑐫𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐵 𑑑𑑔𑐬 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑑𑑋𑑐𑑖𑑋𑑐𑑘) 𑐏𑐸𑐣𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐁𑐡𑐬𑑂‍𑐱 𑐩𑐵𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐩𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐮𑐣 𑐣𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐 𑐳𑐶𑐑𑑅𑐥𑐸𑐤𑐷 (𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑗𑑋𑑖𑑋𑑑𑑗) 𑐏𑐸𑐡𑑃 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐵𑐡𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑐣 𑑋 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫𑑄 𑐩𑐸𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑑒𑑖 𑐥𑑁𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐮𑐔𑑄 𑐣𑐵𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑑀𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐮𑐣𑐫𑐵 (𑐥𑑁 𑑗–𑑙𑐟𑐎) 𑐖𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐵𑐮 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫 𑐰 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑑄 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐰 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑑄 𑐟𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐂 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐎𑐠𑑄 (𑑑) 𑐣𑐵𑐩 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐔,𑐖,𑐫,𑐮 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐳𑐸𑐮𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵𑑅 (𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟) ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐔– 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂, 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐔– 𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐂. 𑑋 (𑑒) 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐾𑐳𑐵 𑐫𑑂 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐧𑑃𑐳–𑐧𑑃𑐫𑑂, 𑐎𑐮𑐳𑐳– 𑐎𑐮𑐳𑐫𑑂 𑐂.𑑋 (𑑓) 𑐟𑐡𑑂𑐢𑐷𑐟𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐰𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑑄 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐥𑐫𑐵𑐪 𑐡𑐵𑐖𑐸– 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐥𑐫𑑂 𑐡𑐵𑐖𑐸, 𑐫𑐮𑐫𑐵𑐪 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸– 𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐂.𑑋 (𑑔) 𑐰𑐴𑐸𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾 𑐰𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐢 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 ‘𑐟𑑄𑐫’𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵𑑅 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐩𑐔𑐵𑐟𑐫–𑐩𑐔𑐵𑐟𑐫𑑂, 𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟𑐫–𑐩𑐣𑐹𑐟𑐫𑑂 𑑋 𑐂.𑑋 (𑑕) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐸 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾 𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 (𑐮𑐵𑐎𑐾, 𑐪𑐶𑐟𑐾, 𑐧𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾, 𑐨𑐵𑑅𑐥𑐾, 𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐾, 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾) ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐰𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐸𑐂 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐩𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐳𑐾 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐸𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐂., 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐹 𑑋 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐵 𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑐮𑐾 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐏𑑅 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐖𑐹 𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐹𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑅𑐣𑐾𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐁𑐏𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐰 𑐌𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐩𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾– 𑐎𑐾𑐣 𑐎𑐾𑐣𑐷, 𑐧𑑀𑐣 𑐧𑑀𑐣𑐷 𑐂. 𑐩𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 (𑑖) 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐵 (𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐳𑐩) 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐩𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐳𑐾 𑐕𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐮𑑄 ‘𑐫’ 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾– 𑐨𑐫, 𑐁𑐫 𑐂.𑑋 (𑑗) 𑐠𑑅𑐠𑐪𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐠𑐸𑐂𑐎𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐀𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐴𑐵𑐣𑑄 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵𑑅 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐩𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾– 𑐧𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐟– 𑐧𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐫𑑂, 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 (𑑘) 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐟𑐸𑐟𑐶𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾 𑑕𑑐 (𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐫𑑂), 𑑗𑑐 (𑐤𑐫𑑂) 𑐂.𑑋 (𑑙) 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 ‘𑐳’𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐾𑐳𑐵 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐣𑐵𑐥 ‘𑐮𑐫𑑂’ 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐩 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐐𑐠𑐾(–𑐧𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐂𑐮𑐫𑑂, 𑐖𑐹𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐂.𑑋 𑐐𑐸𑑄𑐐𑐹 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑑓 𑐖𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐵𑐮 𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐥𑐸

𑐄𑐥𑐱𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎 (𑑓.𑑒) 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐟 𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐷𑐣 𑐂𑐮𑐊 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐎) 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐵 𑐬 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐩 (𑐏) 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐷𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐣𑐵𑐩 (𑐐) ‘𑐟’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰𑐴𑐸𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐀𑐬𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎, (𑐑) ‘𑐟’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰𑐴𑐸𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐬 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐡𑐵𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎, (𑐒) ‘𑐟’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰𑐴𑐸𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐢 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎𑐊 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕𑑅𑑕𑑖(𑑕𑑗) 𑑋

(𑑓.𑑓) 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐟 (𑐎) 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐵 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐄𑐣𑐾 𑐰 𑐡𑐠𑐸𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐳,𑐔,𑐖’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐾𑐳𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐘𑑂𑐖𑐣 𑐡𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐵𑐩 (𑐏) 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐷𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐀 𑐰 𑐁𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐩𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶, (𑐐) ‘𑐟’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰𑐴𑐸𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐷𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐎, (𑐑) ‘𑐟’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰𑐴𑐸𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐟𑐷𑐫 𑐰 𑐔𑐟𑐸𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶, (𑐒) ‘𑐟’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐰𑐴𑐸𑐰𑐔𑐣 𑐣𑐵𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐲𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟𑐶, (𑐔) 𑐳𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐩, (𑐕) 𑐀𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐫 (𑐖) 𑐄𑐡𑑂𑐐𑐵𑐬𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 (𑐗) 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐱𑑂𑐣𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐞𑐊 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 ‘𑐫𑑂’ 𑐩𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐖𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐵 ‘𑐫’ 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕𑑅𑑕𑑘–𑑖𑑐) 𑑋

(𑑓.𑑔) ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟) (𑐎) 𑐬𑐷𑐟𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵–𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐞 (𑐏) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵–𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐞, (𑐐) 𑐳𑐴𑐵𑐫𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, (𑐑) 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐟 𑐥𑐡, (𑐔) 𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐰𑐬𑐹𑐥 𑐤𑐾𑐮𑐹𑐩𑐰𑐂𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐊 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑑀𑐕𑐶𑐣𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕𑑅𑑖𑑐(𑑖𑑑) 𑑋

(𑑔.𑑑) 𑐧𑐸𑑃𑐡𑐵 (𑐘) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐰 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐷 𑐠𑐷 𑐬𑐹𑐥 (𑑑) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸,(𑑒) 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫 𑐨𑐰𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐮, (𑑓) 𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐣𑐶𑐴𑐶𑐟 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐩𑐵𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, (𑑔) 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐎, (𑑕) 𑐄𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐞𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵 (Infinitive verb), (𑑖) 𑐰𑐶𑐢𑐶 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵, (𑑗) 𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐨𑐸𑐟𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐊 𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐕𑐾𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 (𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫𑑅𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕𑑅𑑕𑑗) 𑑋

𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑑔 𑐱𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 (𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘)

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐸𑐏𑑂𑐫 𑐩𑐸𑐏𑑂𑐫 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐄𑐥𑐱𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐲𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑑓 𑐊 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐷 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐂𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 ‘𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂–𑐪𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂’ 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐳𑑄𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡 𑐟𑐠𑐵 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐰𑐵𑐫𑑂’ 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐵𑑅,‘𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂–𑐪𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂’𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾–𑐪𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾’ 𑐟𑐠𑐵 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 ,𑐰𑐵𑐫𑑂’ 𑐫𑐵 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾’ 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐄𑐔𑑂𑐔𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐛𑐷𑐎 𑐩𑐖𑐹, 𑐧𑐵𑑃 𑐣𑑃 𑐩𑐮𑐵, 𑐎𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐸 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾’ 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑑃 𑐎𑐺𑐡𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐖𑐸𑐃𑐧𑐮𑐾 ‘𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸’ 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡 𑐣𑑃 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐏𑑅𑑋 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩 (𑑙𑑗–𑑑(𑐁) 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐳𑑃 𑑋 (𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷𑑅 𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘𑑅𑐕)

𑐎𑐺𑐡𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡 (Objective word) (𑐁) 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑑃 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐟𑐠𑐵 ‘𑐳𑐵’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐰𑐵𑐔𑐎 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐖𑐸𑐂, ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐂 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐐𑐣𑑃 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐫𑐰 ‘𑐊’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐥 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐖𑐸𑐃, 𑐐𑐣𑑃 ‘𑐰𑐣𑐾’ 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑑃 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐫𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐩𑐏𑐸 ‘𑐳𑐵’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐫𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐖𑐸𑐂– ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥 (𑐎) 𑐣𑐫𑐾–𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐣𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾– 𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾–𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾–𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾– 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑑋

𑐠𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑐾𑐰𑐮 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐶𑐰𑑀𑐢𑐎 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐠 𑐖𑐎 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐚 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑑋 ‘𑐣𑐫𑐾–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐀𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐁𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐩𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐟𑐷 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑑃 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐧𑐶𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐥𑑃 (𑐐𑐣𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐃–𑐐𑐣𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐃 𑐩𑐏𑐸) ‘𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐬’ 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑑀𑐥 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐣𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸, 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸’ 𑐟𑐟𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐖𑐸𑐃, 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐫𑑅 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑃 𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐾 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐴𑐵𑐬 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑑋

(𑐏) 𑐠𑑂𑐰 ‘𑐐𑐸’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐡𑐾𑐱 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐀𑐬𑑂‍𑐠𑐵𑐟𑑂 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑑃 𑐖𑐸𑐃– 𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾–𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐰𑐣𑐾–𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑋 ‘𑐳𑐵’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥 (𑐐) 𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐣𑐳𑐵 𑑋 𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸–𑐟𑐶𑐳𑐵 𑑋 𑐮𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐–(𑐮𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑑋 𑐴𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸– 𑐴𑐵𑐳𑐵 (𑐱𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷𑑅𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘𑑅𑑑𑑘𑑗–𑑑𑑘𑑙) 𑑋

𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑑕 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚𑑄 𑐮𑑅𑐯𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑁

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶

𑐔𑑂𑐧𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵, 𑐩𑐵𑐳𑑄𑐐𑐵𑑅, 𑐫𑑃 𑑋

𑐰𑐶𑐲𑐫𑑅 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐮𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐟 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐊𑐎𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐟𑐵 𑐴𑐫𑑂𑐟 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑅𑑋 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑓 𑐔𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐵 𑑑𑑑 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐟𑐕𑐮𑐵𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑑘 (𑐄𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐰𑐶.𑐳𑑄. 𑑒𑑐𑑓𑑙 𑐔𑐿𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑑒𑑖 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑐 𑐀𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑑔)𑐟𑐎 𑐣𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐗𑐶𑑄𑐥𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐𑐹 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑑁 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐗𑐶𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑑋 𑐁𑐏𑐶𑐬 𑐡𑐶𑐣𑐫𑑂 𑐰 𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐟 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐕𑐠𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐸𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐱𑑀𑐢𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐟 𑐗𑐶𑑄𑐏𑐸𑐪𑐳𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐄𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑐵𑐳 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 ‘𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶’ 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐕𑐸𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑐰 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕 𑐠𑐶𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑑒 (𑐰𑐶.𑐳𑑄. 𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑑 𑐩𑑄𑐳𑐷𑐬 𑑙𑐐𑐟𑐾) 𑐱𑐣𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐁𑐡𑐬𑑂‍𑐱 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐫, 𑐐𑐞𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐸𑐮 𑑋 𑐀𑐣 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐫𑑀𑐖𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐨𑐹𑐲𑐞𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐡 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐟 𑐗𑐶𑑄𑐣𑐶𑐥𑑁𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐂𑐣𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐰 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐨𑐶𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐾𑐟 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐟 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐪𑐳𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐄𑐥𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑑋 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐄𑐥𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕 𑐠𑐶𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑑙 (𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑑 𑐩𑑄𑐳𑐷𑐬 𑑑𑑖𑐐𑐟𑐾) 𑐳 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐐𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐎𑑀𑐱 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐞 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐠𑐵–𑐠𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐄𑐥𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐖𑑅 𑐜𑐵. 𑐎𑐩𑐮𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐟 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐁𑐥𑐵𑐮𑑄 𑐏𑑃 𑐳𑐸𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸, 𑐊𑐎𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑃 𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐀𑐠𑐾 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐱𑑀𑐢𑐣, 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐡𑑂𑐬𑑂‍𑐢𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸, 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐢𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐥𑐴𑐮𑑄 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐟 𑐖𑐶𑐟𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐮𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐜𑐵. 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐳𑐸𑐗𑐵𑐰 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐟 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐟 𑐏𑑃 𑐖𑐎 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐩𑐐𑐵𑑅, 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂‍𑐞 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑑂‍𑐨𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑑅 𑐤𑐹𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐩𑐵 𑑋 (𑐰𑐫𑑂𑐎𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐗𑐵𑐰 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐡𑐸 𑑋) 𑐠𑐸𑐮𑐶 𑐖𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐶𑐟 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐠𑑅𑐪 𑐥𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑑅𑐠𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐮𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸, 𑐧𑐵𑐰𑐸𑐎𑐟𑐵𑐰𑐱 𑐥𑐵𑐳 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸, 𑐧𑐴𑐸𑐩𑐟 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐀𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐥𑐵𑐳 𑐖𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑐎𑑄𑐕𑐶𑑄 𑐀𑐥𑑂𑐥𑑀 𑐏𑑃𑐟 𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐵 𑐨𑐶𑑄𑐎𑐾𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑄 𑐡𑐸 𑑋

𑐠𑐸𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑐬𑑂‍𑐞𑐰𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐷 𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐎𑐾𑐟 𑐖𑐶𑐟𑑅 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐮𑐵 𑐠𑐷𑐠𑐷 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐞𑑄 𑐡𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐶 𑐡𑐫𑑂𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐣𑑄 𑐖𑐶𑑄 𑐥𑐹𑐰𑑄𑐎𑐾 𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐟 𑑋 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐥𑐹𑐩𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐫𑑂 𑐁𑐫𑑂𑐧𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐠𑑂𑐰 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐟𑐵 𑐥𑐹𑐩𑐰𑑄𑐎𑐵𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐟𑑅𑐢𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐥𑐬𑐵𑐢 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣 𑐢𑐿𑐐𑐸 𑐟𑐬𑑂‍𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐖𑐰𑑅 𑐳𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐩𑑀𑐴𑐣 𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷𑐫𑐵 𑐪𑐸𑐟𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐱𑐧𑑂𑐡𑐎𑑀𑐱 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵𑐞 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑖 𑐔𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐵 𑑑𑑑 𑐱𑐣𑐶𑐰𑐵𑐬 (𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑒 𑐔𑐿𑐟𑑂𑐬𑑒𑑓) 𑐳 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐶𑐴𑐵𑑃 𑐰𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐳𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐜𑐵. 𑐎𑐩𑐮𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐡𑐶𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐵 𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐁𑑅 𑐠𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐖𑐶𑑄 𑐰 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐹𑐰𑑄𑐎𑐾 𑐩𑐦𑐿𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑄 𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐟 𑐖𑐶𑐟𑑅𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐮𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐟 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐵 𑑋 𑐠𑐠𑐾 𑐮𑐶𑐟 𑐧𑐷𑐩𑐵𑑅𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐷 𑐳𑐎𑐮 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐩𑐷𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑀𑐣𑐾 𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐩𑐵 𑐦𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑑅𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐬𑑂‍𑐟𑐰𑑂𑐫 𑐨𑐵𑑅𑐥𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐵 𑑋

𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠 𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚

𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄.𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑖 𑐟𑐕𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐵 𑑘 𑐁𑐂𑐟𑐰𑐵𑐬

𑐰𑐶.𑐳𑑄. 𑑒𑑐𑑔𑑓 𑐀𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑑑𑑕

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑑃𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑑁 (𑐩𑐸𑐣𑐵 (𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑅𑑑𑑒𑑒) 𑐊 𑐯𑐵𑐟𑑄 𑐔𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐠𑐾 𑐯𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑑋

𑐮𑐶𑐢𑑄𑐳𑐵

𑐃𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡, 𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑑, 𑐩𑐹𑐮𑐸𑐏𑐵 𑐧𑑅𑐢𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐮𑐔𑑄 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑃 𑑅 𑐩𑐫𑑂𑐖𑐸 𑐳𑐸𑐢𑐵 𑑋

𑐃𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡, 𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑔, 𑐔𑐮𑑄𑐔𑐵 (𑐔𑐶𑐎𑐶𑐔𑐵 𑐢𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞) 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑃 𑑅 𑐳𑐸𑐢𑐵𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐷 𑑋

𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬, 𑐟𑐾𑐖𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣, 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑒, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑑋 𑐡𑐾𑐐𑑅𑑑𑑒𑑋 𑐫𑑃𑐾 𑑅 𑐡𑐾𑐐𑑅 𑐪𑐶𑐔𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑑋

𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬, 𑐰𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐞𑐸,𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐰 𑐥𑐴𑑅𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑃𑐫𑑂 𑐕𑐸𑑃 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑑅𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐡𑐶𑐮𑐷𑐥 𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫 𑑋

𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷, 𑐳𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐩𑑀𑐴𑐣, 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑘, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐸𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑑋 𑐫𑐮𑑅 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐣 𑑋

𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷, 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞, 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑒, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐮𑐵𑐎𑑁𑐮 𑐥𑐶𑐠𑐣𑐵 𑑋

𑐖𑑀𑐱𑐷, 𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑐎𑐺𑐲𑑂𑐞,𑑒𑑐𑑖𑑐, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 𑐎𑐵𑐛𑐩𑐵𑐜𑑁𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐎𑐷𑐫 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐵𑐣 𑑋

ISBN:99933-50-54-0.

𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚, 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠, 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑑, 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐩𑐵𑐧𑐮𑐷 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐡𑐾𑐐𑑅 𑐳𑐸𑐱𑐶𑐮𑐣𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐞, 𑐪𑐶𑐔𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑑋

𑐟𑐩𑑀𑐚, 𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐷𑐣𑐵𑐠, 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑓, 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐩𑐞𑑂𑐜𑐮 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐫𑐶𑐎𑐷 𑑋 𑐫𑐮𑑅

𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐩𑐞𑑂𑐜𑐮 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑐐𑐸𑐠𑐶 𑑋

𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅, 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑑, 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐶𑐥𑑂𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 𑐫𑐮𑑅 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑄 𑑋

𑐥𑐶𑐰𑐵𑑅, 𑐳𑐸𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑖, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐏𑑅𑐎𑐠𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑑃𑐥𑐸 𑑋 𑐎𑐵𑐛𑐩𑐵𑐜𑑁 𑑅 𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐎 𑐨𑐞𑑂𑐜𑐵𑐬.

𑐥𑐶𑐰𑐵𑑅, 𑐳𑐸𑐬𑑂‍𑐫𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑗, 𑐴𑑂𑐬𑐳𑑂𑐰–𑐡𑐷𑐬𑑂‍𑐑𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑑋 𑐎𑐵𑐛𑐩𑐵𑐜𑑁𑑅 𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐎 𑐨𑐞𑑂𑐜𑐵𑐬𑑋

𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣, 𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫𑐔𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐶𑑄𑐴, 𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑘, 𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐵𑐱𑐸𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐵𑐔𑐵 (𑐱𑐰𑑂𑐡 𑐰𑐶𑐔𑐵𑐬) 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫𑐔𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐶𑑄𑐴 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣 𑑋 𑐰𑐶𑐳𑑄 𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑔 𑑋

𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮, 𑐖𑐾. 𑐊𑐳, 𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑕, 𑐂𑐳𑐥𑑄 𑐡𑐊𑐎𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐵𑐏𑑄 𑑋 𑐳𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐊𑐖 𑐖𑐾 𑐊𑐩 𑑋

𑐰𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂‍𑐫, 𑐣𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡, 𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑙(?), 𑐊𑐎𑐰𑐶𑑄𑐳𑐟𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐟𑑀𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐌𑐩𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐮 𑑋

𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣, 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐹𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐, 𑐗𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 𑐎𑐶𑐥𑐹𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐐𑐸𑐠𑐶 𑑋

𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣, 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐹𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑘, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐊𑐎𑐾𑐜𑐾𑐩𑐷 𑑋

𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣, 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐹𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑗, 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐬𑐷𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 𑐎𑐶𑐥𑐹𑑅 𑐎𑐶𑐥𑐹 𑐣𑐐𑐬𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑑋

𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣, 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐹𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑘, 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐔𑐫 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐞𑐷 𑐟𑐵𑐩𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑑋

𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣, 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐹𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐲𑐟𑐵 𑑋 𑐫𑐮𑑅 𑐤𑐹𑐴𑐶𑐳𑐸 𑐥𑐸𑐔𑑅 𑑋

𑐩𑐴𑐬𑑂‍𑐖𑐣, 𑐟𑐸𑐫𑐹𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑒, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐰𑐿𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑑋 𑐫𑐮𑑅 𑐮𑐸𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐡𑐧𑐹 𑑋

𑐰𑐿𑐡𑑂𑐫, 𑐖𑐣𑐎𑐮𑐵𑐮, 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑕, ‘𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫 ‘𑐫𑑂’ (𑐴𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐟) 𑐰 ‘𑐫𑐾’ 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵’, 𑐏𑐾𑐮𑐸𑐂𑐟𑐵𑑅 𑑖𑑅𑑖𑑅𑑕𑑓–𑑖𑑔) 𑑋

𑐳𑐵𑐐𑐬, 𑐥𑐸𑐲𑑂𑐥𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣, 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑒, 𑐳𑐸𑐧𑑀𑐢 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 ‘𑐠𑑁𑐎𑐤𑐾’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐣 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐐𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 (𑑑𑑋 𑐎𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐥𑐸𑐬 𑑅 ‘𑐠𑑁𑐎𑐤𑐾’ 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐣 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐵𑐐 𑑋

𑐳𑐶𑑄, 𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐩𑐵𑐣, 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑕, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑑋 𑐎𑐵𑐛𑐩𑐵𑐜𑑁𑑅 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐡𑐸, 𑐨𑑀𑐚𑐾𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐮 𑑋

𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵, 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖, 𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑃 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑃 𑑋 𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 (𑑕𑑖 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐔𑑀𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑑋

𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵, 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖, 𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑙,𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐏𑑃𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐮𑐶𑐩𑐮𑐶 𑑋 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅 (𑑑𑑒𑑔 𑑋 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐥𑑅 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐎 𑑋

ISBN: 978-9937-8123-7-5.

𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵, 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖, 𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑑, 𑐗𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑑂𑐰 𑐰 𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐵𑐐𑑅 𑑋 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐥𑑅 𑐳𑐶𑐢𑑂𑐡𑐶 𑐳𑑂𑐩𑐺𑐟𑐶 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐵𑐣 𑑋

𑐱𑐬𑑂‍𑐩𑐵, 𑐬𑐩𑐵𑐥𑐟𑐶𑐬𑐵𑐖, 𑑑𑑐𑑓𑑑, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑐵𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐢𑐸𑐎𑐹 (𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑅 𑐢𑐸𑐎𑐹) 𑑋 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅 (𑑑𑑓𑑐 𑑋 𑐏𑑂𑐰𑐥𑑅 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑑅

𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐎 𑑋

𑐱𑐸𑐨 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐎𑐸𑐠𑐶 (𑐳𑑄), 𑑑𑑑𑑐𑑓, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐰𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐟𑑅𑐩𑐸𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑑁 𑐩𑐸𑐣𑐵 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑑋

𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛, 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬,𑑑𑑑𑑒𑑐, ‘𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐟𑐸 𑐎𑑂𑐰𑑅𑐕𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐕𑐐𑐹 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣’, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐩𑐞𑑂𑐜𑐮 𑐧𑑂𑐰𑑃𑐩𑐵𑑅, 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅

𑑒 𑑋 𑐫𑐮𑑅 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐩𑐞𑑂𑐜𑐮 𑐑𑑅𑐔𑐵𑑅𑐢𑐸𑐎𑐹 𑑋

𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛, 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬,𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑒, 𑐥𑑀𑐏𑐬𑐵 𑐬 𑐎𑐵𑐛𑐩𑐵𑐜𑑁𑑄–𑐥𑐵𑐚𑐣𑐎𑑀 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐩𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐣 𑐨𑐾𑐡 𑑋 𑐮𑐑𑐸 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐵𑐣𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑑋

𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐫 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐡𑐵𑐣 𑐁𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑑋

𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛, 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬,𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑐, 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐣 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐞𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐬𑐵𑐩𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐨𑑀𑑄𑐩𑐶 𑑋 ISBN:978-9937-2-3690-4.

𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛, 𑐌𑐩𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐱𑑂𑐰𑐬,𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑑, 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑑅 𑐨𑐵𑐊𑐫𑐵 𑐪𑐶𑐔𑐵𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑑋 𑐣𑐳𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑐾𑐬𑐶𑐖–𑑕 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐣𑐳𑐣𑐵 𑐥𑐧𑑂𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐾𑐱𑐣 𑑋

ISBN: 978-9937-2-5491-5.

𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛, 𑐧𑐵𑐮𑐐𑑀𑐥𑐵𑐮, 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑗, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐀𑐨𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐣, 𑐮𑐳𑐎𑐸𑐳, 𑑖𑑑–𑑖𑑓𑑋

𑐱𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐫, 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐵, 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑐, 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐸𑐮𑐔𑑄 𑑋 𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑑖𑑔 𑑋 𑐫𑐾𑑅 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑑋

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