𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂: 𑐕𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣


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𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂: 𑐕𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣

𑐡𑐵𑐩𑑀𑐡𑐬 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐡 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣
𑐧𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩𑐱𑐶𑐮 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐬, 𑐠𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐴𑐷, 𑐫𑐾𑑄, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐩𑐞𑑂𑐜𑐮 𑑋

𑐁𑐡𑐶𑐩 𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐮𑐾 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐁𑐡𑐶𑐧𑐵𑐳𑐷 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑑑 𑐰 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐀𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐩𑐶 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐯𑐵𑐃𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑐮𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐏: 𑑋 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐣 𑐧𑐳𑑀𑐧𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐢𑐹𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑐳𑐎𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐮𑐶𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶 𑐀𑐒𑑂𑐐𑐷𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐯𑐵𑐃𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐹 𑐖𑐸𑐮𑑂: ! 𑐡𑑀𑐮𑑄𑐡𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐡𑐣𑑂 (𑐴𑐖𑐵𑐬 𑐧𑐬𑑂𑐲 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎) 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐁𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐕𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐕𑐸𑐚𑑂𑐚𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑐫 𑐠𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐮𑑂: ! 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐢𑐵𑐃𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵:𑐐𑐵𑐮𑐾 (𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐮𑐾) 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐣 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑐳𑑀𑐧𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑐎𑐮 𑐖𑐵𑐟 𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑐸𑐴𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐢𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵 ! 𑐠𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐷 𑐩𑐾𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐪 𑐩𑐣𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂𑐞 𑐏𑑄𑐟: 𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐕𑐷 𑐖𑐸𑐰𑑀𑐃 𑐢𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐕𑐪 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐌𑑄 𑐳𑐎𑐮 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐬𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐠𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑐳𑐎𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐩𑐶𑐮𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐖𑐸 ! 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐳𑐵𑐧𑐣 𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐢𑐃𑐐𑐸𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐕𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶 𑐩𑐏𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐣 𑐖𑐣𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑐸𑐴 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂𑐩𑐵 !
𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐰𑐷 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐰𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐮𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐎𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐸: ! 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵:𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐣 𑐀𑐫𑐾𑐳𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵:𑐩𑐶 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑑀𑐮𑐶𑐔𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐢𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐴𑐾 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵 𑐌𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏: ! 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐧𑐵𑑄𑐮𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐷𑑄 𑐳𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐩𑐏𑐸𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐃:𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑀𑐮𑐷𑐔𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑀: 𑐮𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐎𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐮𑑂: ! (𑐛𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐟: Newari Hybrid Sanskrit 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸𑐫𑐵 !) 𑐮𑐶𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐰𑐷 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐮𑐾 𑐁𑐥𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐮𑐵 𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐸, 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐢𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐎𑑄 𑐦𑐬𑐎 𑐦𑐬𑐎 𑐐𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑐔𑐶𑐩𑑀𑐮, 𑐨𑐸𑐖𑐶𑑄𑐩𑑀𑐮, 𑐐𑑀𑐮𑐩𑑀𑐮, 𑐐𑐸𑐥𑑂𑐟𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐬𑐷, 𑐎𑑂𑐰𑐾𑑄𑐫𑐩𑑀𑐮 𑐳𑐵 𑐐𑑄𑐣𑑂 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐮𑐶𑐟 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐣𑑄 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵 𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐸: !
𑐧𑑄𑐐𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐖𑐸 𑐩𑐞𑐶𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫 (𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑔𑑐/ 𑐃.𑐳𑑄.𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑐) 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐣𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐁𑐟𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐮𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐳𑐶𑐧𑐫 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐷 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐮𑐶𑐏𑐶𑐟 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠 𑐏: ! 𑑒 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐳𑐵𑐧𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐡𑑂𑐐𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐮 𑐧𑑄𑐐𑐵𑐮 𑐖𑐸𑐃𑐩𑐵𑐮, 𑐕𑐵𑐫𑐢𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐮𑐾 𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐱 𑐃.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑒𑑐𑑐 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐖𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐳𑐶𑐃 𑐡𑐸:! (𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐣𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐸) 𑑓
𑐫𑐮 𑐬𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐰𑐬𑑂𑐞 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐰𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐬𑐾 (𑐄𑐎𑐸 𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐮) 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾. 𑐳𑑄. 𑑒𑑓𑑕 (𑐃.𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑑𑑑𑑕) 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐟𑐵𑐜-𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐨𑐵𑐲𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐩𑐶𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐃𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑅𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐁𑐟𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐮𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐨𑐶𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐏𑐚𑑂𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵 ! 𑑔
𑐴𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐵𑐣𑐮𑐾 𑐩𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑐧𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑄𑐐𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐖𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐟 𑐮𑐜𑐵𑐃𑐮𑐾 𑐰𑐸𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐏𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑑄𑐖𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐫 𑐢𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐳𑑂𑐚 𑐖𑐸𑐃𑐎 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐎𑐵𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐧𑑁𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐎𑐳𑐵:𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐧𑐬𑑂𑐖𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐩𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐩𑐵 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑁𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐰 𑐄𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐬 𑐨𑐵𑐬𑐟 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾 𑐱𑐬𑐞 𑐎𑐵:𑐰𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾. 𑐳𑑄. 𑑓𑑒𑑐 (𑐃.𑐳𑑄.𑑑𑑒𑑐𑑐) 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐧𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐣 𑐰 𑐟𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐣 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐧𑑁𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐯𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐖𑐸𑐠𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐰 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐳 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐷𑐂𑐡𑐸: !
𑐃𑐟𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐳 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑔𑑗𑑐 (𑐃.𑐳𑑄.𑑑𑑓𑑕𑑐) 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑐮𑐣 𑐰𑑀𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐶𑐃𑐡𑐸:!𑑕 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄.𑑒𑑓𑑙 𑐅𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐵𑑃𑐏𑐸 𑐧𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐶𑐣𑐷 𑐡𑐾:𑐐 𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑑂 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐔𑐸𑐎𑐫 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐯𑐰𑑄 𑐫𑐵 𑐠𑐵𑐩𑐫𑑂 𑐎𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐨𑐶𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐳𑐶𑐧𑐫 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐨𑐶𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐏: 𑑋 𑑖
𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑃 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑃 𑐴𑐶𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐵 𑐟𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐳𑐵𑑃 𑐐𑑀𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐬𑐵𑐖 𑐧𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐧𑐮𑐷 (𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑕𑑐𑑙/ 𑐃.𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑓𑑘𑑙) 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐎𑐳𑐶𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐢𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵 ! 𑑗
𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐖𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐳𑑄 (𑐖𑐫𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮, 𑐩𑐴𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮, 𑐳𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐢𑐶𑐣𑐬𑐳𑐶𑑄𑐴 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮, 𑐖𑐐𑐟𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮, 𑐎𑐰𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐵𑐥 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮 𑐁𑐡𑐶) 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐀𑐣𑐾𑐎 𑐣𑐵𑐚𑐎, 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐰𑑂𑐫, 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾, 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐶𑐢 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐸𑐟: 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐸:𑑋
𑐥𑐺𑐠𑑂𑐧𑐷 𑐣𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐞 𑐱𑐵𑐴 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑂 𑐰𑐶𑐖𑐫 𑐫𑐵𑐫 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐰𑑀 (𑐃.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑗𑑖𑑘 / 𑐧𑐶.𑐳𑑄 𑑑𑑘𑑒𑑕) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 (𑐄𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐫𑑂𑐫𑐵) 𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐹𑐥𑐫 𑐔𑐮𑐣 𑐔𑐮𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐶𑐃 𑐡𑐸:𑑋 𑐥𑐺𑐠𑑂𑐧𑐷 𑐣𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐞 𑐱𑐵𑐴𑐣𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐷 𑐎𑐳𑐵: 𑐰𑐶𑐮 𑐢𑐵𑐃𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑄𑐟: 𑐁𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐷𑐂𑐡𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑑀𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸: ! 𑐥𑐺𑐠𑑂𑐧𑐷 𑐣𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐞 𑐱𑐵𑐴 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐𑑂 𑐰𑐶𑐖𑐫 𑐫𑐵𑐫 𑐢𑐸𑑄𑐎𑐵 𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐨𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐱𑐵𑐴 𑐖𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐬𑑀𑐢 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑑒,𑑕𑑐𑑐 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐥𑐺𑐠𑑂𑐧𑐷 𑐣𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐞 𑐱𑐵𑐴 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑄 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐵 𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐸: 𑑋 𑑘 𑐠𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐸 𑐎𑐶𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐶𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐜𑐵𑑃𑐃𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑐶𑐥𑐸𑐩𑐷 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐒𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐩𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐬𑐧𑐟 𑐔𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐾 𑐰𑐴𑐖𑐸: ! 𑐂𑐱𑐵𑐃 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐰𑐮𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐷 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐟𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑐺𑐠𑑂𑐧𑐷 𑐣𑐵𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐞 𑐱𑐵𑐴 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫 𑐡𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐣𑐵𑐕𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐐𑐸 𑐏:, 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐃:𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾 𑐡𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐣𑐵 𑐕𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐷 𑐳𑑄𑐟𑐟𑐶𑐟: 𑐀𑐗𑐣𑑂 𑐄𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐬 𑐨𑐵𑐬𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑐸𑐴𑐡𑐷 𑐢𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐵𑐳𑐫𑐾 𑐡𑐣𑐷 ! 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐳𑐵𑐧𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐾𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐎𑐳𑐵: 𑐰𑐶𑐅𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐷𑑄 𑑓/𑑔 𑐥𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑐫𑑄𑐎 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐟 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐀𑐠𑐰𑐵 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑑄 𑐏𑑄 𑐯𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐩𑐦𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐮𑑂:!
𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐰𑑀 𑐣𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐯𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐯𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐳𑐵 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾 𑐗𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐀𑐜𑑂𑐜𑐵 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐟𑐶𑐧𑐾𑐟𑐷 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐃𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐰𑑀 𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐶 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐳𑐎𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑑀𑐐 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐌𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏:𑑋 𑐠𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐧𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐟 𑑑𑑘𑑓𑑒 (𑐃.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑗𑑗𑑕) 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾 𑐟𑐶𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐟 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐶 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏:𑑋 𑐬𑐞𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐱𑐵𑐴 𑐰 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬 𑐰𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩 𑐱𑐵𑐴 𑐖𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐶𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐸 𑑋 𑑙
𑐣𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐣𑐶 𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐟𑐷 𑐂𑐳𑑂𑐚 𑐂𑐣𑑂𑐜𑐶𑐫𑐣 𑐐𑐰𑐾𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐾𑑄𑐚 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐢𑐶 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐚𑐶𑐱 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐡𑐸𑐟𑐵𑐧𑐵𑐳 𑐡𑐫𑐾𑐢𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐎𑐵 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐡𑐸𑐟 (𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐏𑐟𑐫 𑐬𑐾𑐳𑐶𑐜𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐚 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸𑐫𑐵) 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐗𑐵𑐪 𑐎𑐬𑑂𑐞𑐾𑐮 𑐎𑐶𑐬𑑂𑐎𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐎𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐃.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑘𑑑𑑑 𑐳𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐵𑐬𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐬𑑂𑐞𑐣 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐹 𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐵 𑐰𑐺𑐟𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟-𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐢𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵 ! 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐟𑐶 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐏𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐀𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐖𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐣𑑂 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐾 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐮𑐥𑑁 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐵 𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐏: 𑑋 𑑑𑑐
𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐣 𑐴𑐖𑐳𑐖𑐸𑐣𑑄 (Brain B Hodson in Nepal 1820-1843 AD) 𑐀𑐣𑐾𑐎 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐟𑐟𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐎 𑐩𑐴𑐟𑑂𑐰 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐸𑐬𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐰 𑐛𑑂𑐫𑐵: 𑐳𑐦𑐹:𑐟: 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑑄 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐮𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐸𑐬𑑀𑐥𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐫 𑐰 𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐷 𑐠𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐎𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐮 ! 𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐮𑐸𑑃𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐳𑐷𑐣𑑂 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐐𑐸 (𑐮𑐸𑑃 𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐏 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸) 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐬𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐵 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠 𑐫𑐸𑐬𑑀𑐥 𑐫𑐒𑑂𑐎𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐣 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐣𑐾𑐎 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑑄𑐠𑐟: 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏: 𑑋 𑑑𑑑 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐵𑐬𑐾 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐮𑐾 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐪 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐫𑐣 𑐴𑐖𑐳𑐖𑐸𑐣𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐫𑐟𑐾 𑑑𑑓𑑓 𑐡𑑄 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑑀 𑐬𑑀𑐫𑐮 𑐊𑐱𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐚𑐶𑐎 𑐳𑑀𑐳𑐵𑐂𑐚𑐷 𑐀𑐦 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐚 𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐚𑐾𑐣 𑐊𑐞𑑂𑐜 𑐁𑐫𑐬𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐞𑑂𑐜 𑐣𑐵𑑃 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐰:𑐣𑐵 𑐠𑐎𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐏:𑑋
𑐎𑑀𑐚 𑐥𑐬𑑂𑐧 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐖𑑄𑐐𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐫𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐮 𑐰:𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐷 (𑐃.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑘𑑕𑑐) 𑐐𑑀𑐬𑑂𑐏𑐵𑐮𑐷 (𑐄𑐧𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐔𑐮𑐣 𑐔𑐮𑑂𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐥𑐬𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 – 𑐥𑐬𑑂𑐰𑐟𑐷𑐫 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵) 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵:𑐏𑑄 𑐮𑐾 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐮𑐵 𑐫𑑄𑐎𑐹𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐡𑐩𑐣 𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐏: 𑑋 𑐠𑐣 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑐾 𑐧𑐴𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑄 𑐖𑑄𑐐𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐧𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐟 𑐰𑑀𑐧𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐳𑐮𑐵𑐩𑐷 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫 𑐢𑐹𑐣 (𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾) 𑐕𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑑃𑐰𑐮𑐾 𑐕𑐸𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐕𑐸𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐮, 𑐅𑐧𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐰𑑀𑐪 𑐕𑐪𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑃 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐵𑐩𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 (𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐏𑐟𑐾 𑐔𑐮𑐫𑑂𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄) 𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐵 𑐳𑐮𑐵𑐩𑐷 𑐎𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐣 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐳𑐵𑐧𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐮𑐢𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐮𑑀𑐎𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐵𑐩𑐟𑐶 𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵:𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫 𑐐𑐵𑐣 𑐀𑐠𑐰𑐵 𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫 𑐢𑐹𑐣 𑐢𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵 !
𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑙𑑙𑑗 / 𑐃.𑐳𑑄.𑑑𑑘𑑗𑑗 𑐳𑑄 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐡𑐵𑐫𑐣𑐶𑐫𑐮 𑐬𑐵𑐃𑐟𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐏𑑄𑐐𑑀 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐵 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐳𑐶𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵:𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐃𑐟𑐶𑐴𑐵𑐳 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐷𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐏: ! 𑑑𑑒
𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐬𑐱𑐩𑑂𑐱𑐾𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫 𑐰𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐛𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐟: 𑐖𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐬 𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐷 𑐡𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐮:! 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐷 𑐧𑐴𑐸𑐩𑐸𑐮𑑂𑐫 𑐛𑑂𑐫𑐵:𑐳𑐦𑐹: (𑐯𑐵𑐟𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑑄𑐠𑐟:) 𑐰 𑐠𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐠𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐮𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹:𑐟 𑐯𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵: (𑐴𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐣𑑂 𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵) 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏: 𑑋 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐀𑑄𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐖 𑐡𑐸𑐟𑐵𑐰𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐷 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐛𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹:𑐟 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐣 𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐬𑐷 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑐐 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐧𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐳𑐵𑐦𑐷 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐟:𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐟: 𑐮:𑐯𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐸: 𑑋 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐡𑐾:𑐐 𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐:𑐠𑐵𑑄
𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐵 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐡𑐩𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐏𑐟𑐫𑐣𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑑃 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐩𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡 𑐧𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫, 𑐳𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐢𑐶𑐡𑐵𑐳 𑐩𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐖𑐸, 𑐩𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐚𑐬 𑐖𑐐𑐟𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮 𑐰 𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐧𑐶𑐬 𑐳𑐶𑑄 𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐳𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐷𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐨𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐣 𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐾𑐰𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐡𑐬 𑐏𑐚𑑂𑐣 𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐 𑐠𑐵𑑄 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵: !
𑐣𑐶𑐲𑑂𑐛𑐵𑐣𑐣𑑂𑐡 𑐧𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫 (𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑙𑑗𑑘-𑑑𑑐𑑕𑑕), 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐐𑐡𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶
𑐳𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐢𑐶𑐡𑐵𑐳 𑐩𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐖𑐸 (𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑙𑑘𑑗 -𑑑𑑐𑑕𑑐), 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑐡𑑂𑐫 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶
𑐩𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐚𑐬 𑐖𑐐𑐟𑐳𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬 𑐩𑐮𑑂𑐮 (𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑐𑑐𑑒 -𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑒), 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐱𑐿𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐶𑐎 𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶
𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐧𑐶𑐬 𑐳𑐶𑑄 𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬 (𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑐𑑐𑑖 -𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑒), 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐶𑐎 𑐖𑐵𑐐𑐺𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐢𑐶
𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫 (𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑒 -𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑓) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐖
𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫𑐖𑐸𑐣𑑂 𑐎𑐮𑐎𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐵𑑄 “𑐧𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵” 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐎𑐵 (𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑕-𑑑𑑐𑑔𑑘) 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐐𑐸𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑑁 𑐢𑐵𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵 !
𑐨𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐸 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵 (𑑑𑑐𑑒𑑑-𑑑𑑐𑑙𑑙) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐰𑐶𑐬𑐰𑐵𑐡𑐷 𑐧𑑁𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐎
𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐔𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬 𑐱𑐩𑐱𑐾𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐾 𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑑁𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑑀𑐥𑑂𑐥𑑄 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑔 𑐳𑑄 𑐨𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐸 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐫𑐪 𑐨𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐟 𑐡𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐣𑐵 𑐕𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐐𑐸 𑐏: 𑑋 𑐨𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐸 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐳𑐵𑐬𑐣𑐵𑐠𑐮𑐾 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑑀𑐡𑐫 𑐳𑐨𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐣𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐣𑑄 𑐳𑐦𑐹:𑐟: 𑐕𑐵𑐥𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵: 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐟 ! 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑑀𑐡𑐫 𑐳𑐨𑐵 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾𑑄 𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑕 𑐳𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑑀𑐡𑐫 𑐥𑑁 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐫𑐵𑑄𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐸 𑐥𑑁 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵 !
𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐢𑐵𑐣𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐖𑐸𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐱𑐩𑐱𑐾𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐱𑐵𑐳𑐣 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐾 𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂𑐞𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐾𑐖 𑐫𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐟: 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑑀𑑄𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐖𑐾𑐮 𑐔𑐮𑐵𑐣 𑐟𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐣𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑄 𑐖𑐹𑐮𑑂:, 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵:𑐎𑐸𑐩𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐢𑐬 𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫, 𑐦𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐾 𑐧𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬, 𑐢𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐬𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐫𑐩𑐷, 𑐳𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐶𑐔𑐬𑐞 𑐱𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐳𑐸𑐟: 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐖𑐾𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐎𑐸𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐫𑑄𑐎𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐏: ! (𑐃.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑙𑑔𑑐-𑑑𑑙𑑔𑑕)
𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐰𑐫𑐤𑐰 (𑐤𑑂𑐰𑑀) 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑕 𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐢𑐬 𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫𑐖𑐸 𑐣𑐵𑐥𑑄 𑐩𑐾𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐩𑐷 𑐳𑐎𑐳𑐶𑐚𑑄 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾𑑄 𑐁𑐩𑐩𑐵𑐦𑐷 𑐰𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐎𑐮𑐾𑑄 𑐖𑐾𑐮 𑐩𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏: ! 𑐡𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐟𑐣𑐵 𑐕𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐧𑑁𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐨𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐸 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐩𑐶𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐳𑐎𑐳𑐷𑐟𑑂𑐣 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑐𑑖𑑖 𑐳𑑄 𑐁𑐩𑐩𑐵𑐦𑐷 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐰𑐫𑐟 𑐦𑐸𑐎𑐸𑐰𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐮𑑂: 𑑋 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐃𑐮𑑄 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑑄 𑐳𑐦𑐹: 𑐕𑐵𑐥𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐳𑐵𑑃 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐖𑐵𑑃𑐔 𑐥𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐮𑑂: 𑑋
(𑐤𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐧𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵 𑐏𑐚𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹:𑐟 𑐥𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐳𑐵𑑃 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐖𑐵𑑄𑐔 𑐥𑐵𑐳 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑑄 𑐕𑐵𑐥𑐫𑐾 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐸 !)𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐲𑐡 𑐰 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐢𑐬 ‘𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫’ 𑐮𑐸𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐷 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐹𑐖𑐶𑐫𑐩
𑐖𑐾𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐮𑐵:𑐧𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐔𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐢𑐬 𑐴𑐺𑐡𑐫𑐖𑐹𑑄 𑐳𑐸𑐐𑐟𑐱𑑁𑐬𑐨 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐧𑑂𑐫 𑐬𑐔𑐣𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐏:, 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐎𑐺𑐫𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐲𑐡 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐄𑐟𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐣 𑐰 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐸𑐰𑐵 (𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐩𑐷) 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐳𑐴𑐮𑐴 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐩𑐡𑑂𑐡𑐟𑐫𑐵 𑐅𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑂𑐫𑑄 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐣𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐏: 𑑋 𑐌𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐮𑑄 𑐠𑐐𑐸 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑑂𑐏𑑂𑐫𑑁𑐮𑐷 𑐕𑐾𑑄, 𑐠𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶 𑐰 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐮𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹, 𑐯𑐵𑐟𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐛𑑂𑐫𑐵:𑐳𑐦𑐹𑐟𑑂: 𑐳𑐎𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐲𑐡 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐮:𑐯𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑑃 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐷𑑄 𑐳𑐩𑐬𑑂𑐥𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑐐𑐸𑐏: ! 𑐠𑐣 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐠𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐧𑐴𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑄 𑐣𑐎𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐷 𑐖𑐎𑑂𑐎 (𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑓, 𑐧𑐶.𑐳𑑄.𑑒𑑐𑑗𑑐 𑐁𑐲𑐵𑐡 𑑒𑑙 𑐐𑐟𑐾) 𑐨𑐵𑐬𑐟𑐷𑐫 𑐬𑐵𑐖𑐡𑐸𑐟𑐵𑐧𑐵𑐳 𑐫𑐵 𑐐𑐸𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐷𑑄 𑐳𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐷 𑐰 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐫𑑂 𑐡𑑄 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐾𑑄 𑐡𑐸𑐬𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐟 𑐄𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐃𑐎 𑐯𑑀𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 (𑐩𑐬𑑂𑐩𑐟) 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵: 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸 !
𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐰 𑐁𑐱𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹: 𑐎𑐸𑐠𑐶
𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐷𑑄 𑐠𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐀𑐬𑑂𑐥𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐪 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐩𑐧𑐴𑐵𑐡𑐸𑐬 𑐎𑐳𑐵 (𑐎𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐬) 𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑑀𑐐𑐡𑐵𑐣 𑐮𑐸𑐩𑑄𑐎𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐰𑐴𑐖𑐸:, 𑐰𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐎𑐺𑐫𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐀𑐩𑐸𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐐𑐸 𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐦𑐹: (𑐴𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐮𑐶𑐏𑐶𑐟 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑑄𑐠𑐟) 𑐟𑐫𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐎𑐮𑐣 𑐰 𑐳𑑄𑐬𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐁𑐱𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐎𑐸𑐠𑐶 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐣𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐮 𑑋 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐎𑐳𑐵:𑐖𑐹𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐄𑐟𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐣 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐱𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐟𑑂 𑐐𑐸𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵 𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑖 𑐳𑐵𑐮 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐎𑐮𑐎𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐵 𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐥𑐣𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐂𑐐𑐸𑐏:! 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐃. 𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑙𑑕𑑐 𑐳𑑄 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵 𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐮𑐾 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸𑐏:𑑋 𑐮𑐳𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑐵𑐐𑐸𑐏𑑄 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐳𑐷 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐳𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐠𑐐𑐸𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐕𑐾𑑄𑐳𑑄 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸: ! 𑐤𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐕𑐾𑑄 𑐫𑐾𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐹𑐬𑐹𑑄𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐫 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑑𑑓𑑓 (𑐧𑐶.𑐳𑑄.𑑒𑑐𑑗𑑐 𑐖𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 𑑒𑑕 𑐐𑐟𑐾) 𑐄𑐡𑑂𑐑𑐑𑐵𑐚𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐏: !
𑐬𑐵𑐞𑐵𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐰𑑀𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑐸𑐣𑐬𑑂𑐖𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐞 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵, 𑐳𑑄𑐫𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬 𑐳𑑄𑐑𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑐡𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐡𑐬𑐏𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟 𑐟𑐐𑐸 𑐧𑐏𑐟𑐫 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐡𑐾𑐰𑐣𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐷 𑐴𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐣 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑐾 𑐮𑑂𑐰𑐵:𑐟 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵:𑐫𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐢𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄𑐮𑐷 𑐳𑐡𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐄𑐐𑐸𑐏: ! 𑐠𑐸𑐏𑐟𑐣 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐐𑐸 𑐄𑐟𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐐𑐸 𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐡𑐾𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐄𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐳𑐚𑐵𑑃 𑐖𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑄 𑐏: ! (𑑑𑑔 𑐜𑐶𑐳𑐾𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐬 𑑑𑑙𑑕𑑕)
𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀𑐮𑐾 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐣𑐾. 𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑑 (𑐧𑐶.𑐳𑑄. 𑑒𑑐𑑐𑑘) 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐧𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵: 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐳𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐖𑐸 𑐩𑐴𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐌𑐫𑐵 (𑐧𑑂𑐬𑐪𑐸𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐯𑐵:𑐴 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑐾𑑄) 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐎𑑀𑐠𑐶𑐮𑐵 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑐩𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐩𑐧𑑀𑑄𑐎𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏: 𑑋 𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑕 (𑐧𑐶.𑐳𑑄. 𑑒𑑐𑑒𑑒) 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑑄 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩 𑐡𑐸𑐩𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐮, 𑐠𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐮𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩 𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐡 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐡𑐿𑐩𑐏𑐸 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐁𑐰𑐵𑐖 𑐄𑐠𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐶𑐮𑐳𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐫 𑐖𑐾𑐮 𑐟𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑄 𑐫𑑄𑐎𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐮, 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐨𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐸 𑐳𑐸𑐡𑐬𑑂𑐱𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐏𑐸𑐮𑐵𑐫𑑄𑐎 𑐖𑐾𑐮 𑐟:𑐐𑐸𑐏: 𑑋
𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄. 𑑑𑑐𑑗𑑗 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑐾𑑄 𑐎𑐵𑐛𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐜𑐹 𑐩𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐟𑐷𑐫𑐵 (𑐄𑐐𑐸 𑐰𑐏𑐟𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑐐𑐬𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑐫𑐵:) 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵:𑐏𑑄 𑐦𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐵 𑐔𑐮𑐫𑐾𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏:, 𑐀𑐮𑐾 𑑑𑑐𑑘𑑑 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 (𑐥𑑄𑐔𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐰𑑀𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐮𑐷) 𑐴𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐣𑑂 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑄 𑐧𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐾𑐖 𑐮𑐐𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸𑐏: 𑑋
𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐫𑑂 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑐾𑐱𑐷 𑐥𑐬𑑂𑐫𑐚𑐎 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐛𑐾𑑄 𑐀𑐣𑐾𑐎 𑐡𑐾𑐳𑐳𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐩𑐫𑐾𑐖𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐰 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐷 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐗𑐵𑐫𑐵 𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐳𑐦𑐸𑐟𑐣𑑂 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐧𑑂𑐫𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸: ! 𑐠𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐗𑑀𑐮𑐾 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑐶𑐡𑐶𑐱 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐮𑐶𑐣𑐴𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐜, 𑐧𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐟𑐷 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑑀𑐦𑐾𑐳𑐬 𑐐𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐣𑐬, 𑐀𑐩𑐾𑐬𑐶𑐎𑐷 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑑀𑐦𑐾𑐳𑐬 𑐮𑐸𑐃𑐳, 𑐦𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐳𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑐧𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐜𑐵. 𑐖𑐾𑐬𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐜 𑐚𑑀𑐦𑐶𑐣, 𑐦𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐣𑑂𑐔 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐫𑐰𑐾𑐟𑑂𑐟𑐵 (𑐥𑐹𑐬𑑂𑐰𑐷𑐫 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐷 𑐰 𑐳𑐨𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐱𑐾𑐳𑐖𑑂𑐘- Indologist) 𑐳𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐨𑐵𑑃 𑐮𑐾𑐨𑐷 𑐰 𑐀𑐣𑐾𑐎 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐮𑐸𑐩𑑄𑐎𑐾 𑐰𑐴:𑐖𑐸 ! 𑐰:𑐫𑐾𑐎 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐾𑐣 𑐫𑐵 𑐎𑐡𑐬 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀 𑐫𑐵𑐳𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐵𑐃 𑐩𑐏𑐸, 𑐰:𑐫𑐾𑐎 𑐥𑐶𑑄𑐳𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐰 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑐨𑐬𑐶 𑐢𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐠𑐾𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐡𑐷𑐐𑐸 𑐏: ! 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐣 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐮𑐶𑐣𑐴𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐜𑐖𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐐𑐶𑐟𑐶𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐖𑐬𑐷 𑐣𑐵𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐦𑐹 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐡𑐶:𑐐𑐸𑐏: ! 𑑑𑑓
𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵𑐮 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑑃 𑐣𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑐐 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐷 𑐥𑐬𑐶𑐲𑐡𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂𑐞𑐫 𑐏𑐚𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵:𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑄 𑐁𑐌𑑄𑐮𑐷 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐳𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐅𑐖: 𑐩𑐶𑐟𑐶 𑑒𑑐𑑕𑑒/𑑕/𑑒𑑓 𑐳𑑄 𑐐𑑀𑐬𑐏𑐵𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐥𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐏: !
𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐬 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐵 𑐰 𑐥𑑄𑐔𑐵𑐫𑐟 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫 𑐰:𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐩𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐖𑐸 𑐩𑐫𑐾𑐖𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐮𑐫𑐾 𑐏𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐡𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑀𑐮: ! 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐐𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐫:𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐸𑐰𑐵 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐎𑐸𑐟𑐥𑐵𑐏𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐎𑑀𑐴𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐱𑐶𑐬𑐥𑐵 𑐮:𑐯𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵:𑐗𑑂𑐰𑑀 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸𑐳𑐵 𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐨𑐸𑐰𑐣 𑐰𑐶𑐱𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐧𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐫 𑐫𑐩. 𑐫𑐾. (M.A.) 𑐟𑑄𑐐𑐷 𑐟𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐣𑑂𑐣 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 (𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐨𑐵𑐫𑐾) 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑑀𑑄𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐡𑐟: !
𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐩𑐴𑐵𑐣𑐐𑐬 𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐠𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐾𑐚𑐬 𑐥𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐡 𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐖𑐣𑐵 𑐮𑐶𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐡𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐐𑐬𑐥𑐵𑐮𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐔𑐮𑐫𑐾𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂𑐞𑐫 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵, 𑐳𑐬𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐔𑑂𑐔 𑐀𑐡𑐵𑐮𑐟𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐏𑑄𑐮𑐾 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾 𑐩𑐡𑐃𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂𑐞𑐫 (𑑒𑑐𑑕𑑖 𑐳𑐵𑐮 𑐖𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 𑑑𑑘 𑐐𑐟𑐾 / 𑑑 𑐖𑐸𑐣 𑑑𑑙𑑙𑑙) 𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸𑐮𑐶𑑃 𑐖𑐾𑐲𑑂𑐛 𑑑𑑘 𑐐𑐟𑐾 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐫𑐵 𑐴𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐶𑑄 𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐌𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸 !
𑐁:𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐔𑐵𑐬 𑐰 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐖𑐣𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐩𑑁𑐮𑐶𑐎 𑐴𑐎: 𑐰 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐏: 𑐢𑐎𑐵 𑐳𑑄𑐫𑐸𑐎𑑂𑐟 𑐬𑐵𑐲𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬 𑐳𑑄𑐑 𑐫𑐵 𑐰𑐜𑐵-𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐮𑐾 𑐄𑐮𑑂𑐮𑐾𑐏 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑐎𑐮 𑐖𑐣𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐨𑐔𑐵 𑐴𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐣𑑄 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐷𑑄 𑐱𑐵𑐴 𑐎𑐵𑐮𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑑂𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐖𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑐮𑐷 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐐𑐷 𑐰 𑐩𑐵𑑃𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐩𑐷 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐐𑐸𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐖𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐩𑐏𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐩𑐾𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐣𑑄 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐷 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀 𑐮𑐾 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩 𑐡𑐸𑐠𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐎𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐡𑐸𑐳𑐵 𑐠:𑐠:𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐳𑑄𑐣𑑄 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀 𑐚𑐾𑐮𑐶𑐨𑐶𑐖𑐣 𑐳𑑄𑐔𑐵𑐮𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐡𑐟:𑑋
𑐀𑐠𑐾𑐖𑐸𑐳𑐵𑑃 𑐡𑐾𑐳𑐫 𑐡𑐸𑐣𑐾 𑐡𑐸𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐰𑐶𑐨𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐣 𑐖𑐣𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎 𑐀𑐢𑐶𑐎𑐵𑐬 𑐀𑐗𑐣𑑂 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐾𑐩𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑄 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐳𑐬𑐎𑐵𑐬𑐣𑑂 𑐕𑐸𑑄 𑐣𑐶𑐬𑑂𑐞𑐫 𑐩𑐫𑐵𑐐𑐸𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐳𑐵𑐧𑐣𑑂 𑐠𑑁𑑄𑐎𑐤𑐾 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐶𑐎 𑐁𑐣𑑂𑐡𑑀𑐮𑐣 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑐤𑐾𑐡𑐸: ! 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐠𑐎 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐫𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐤𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐤𑐷𑐳𑑂𑐳𑑄 𑐩𑐵𑑃 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫 𑐫𑐵 𑐤𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐰 𑐔𑐮𑐣 𑐔𑐮𑑂𑐟𑐷 𑐏𑐟𑑄 𑐀𑐥𑐸𑐃𑐎 𑐕𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐷𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵: 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵𑐌𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸:! 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐄𑐣𑑂𑐣𑐟𑐷 𑐰 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐐𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐀𑐣𑐸𑐎𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵 𑐩𑐾𑐩𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑐣 𑐖𑐵𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐮𑐵 𑐧𑐸𑐮𑐸𑑄 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐣𑐵𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸: !
𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐣𑐶𑐐 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐮𑐵𑐐𑐵𑐫 𑐀𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐧𑐵𑐴𑐸𑐮𑑂𑐫 𑐡𑐸𑐐𑐸 𑐴𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐸𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐣𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐖𑐮𑐶𑑄𑐐, 𑐳𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐶𑐩 𑐰 𑐨𑐸𑐚𑐵𑐣 𑐡𑐾𑐳𑐫𑐣𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐃𑐩𑐶𑐠𑐵𑐫 𑐤𑐣𑐵 𑐰𑑀𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐢𑐸𑐒𑑂𑐎𑐹𑐐𑐸 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑐾 𑐰 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐣𑐬𑑂𑐖𑐵𑐐𑐬𑐞 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵: 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐌𑐫𑐵𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐮𑐳𑐟𑐵𑑄 𑐖𑐵𑐐𑐸 𑐏𑑄 𑐏: ! 𑐳𑐶𑐎𑑂𑐎𑐶𑐩𑐫 𑐠𑑁𑐎𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵𑐟 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐟𑐷𑐫 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐫𑐵 𑐬𑐸𑐥𑐫𑐾 𑐩𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐟𑐵 𑐧𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐸𑐮 𑐰 𑐎𑐮𑐾𑐖𑐫𑐾 𑐧𑑂𑐫𑑀𑑄𑐎𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸: !
𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐡𑐾𑐳𑑄 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐰𑐶𑐡𑐾𑐱 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑐣𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐥𑐶𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐶𑐫𑐚𑐵𑑃 𑐀𑐣𑐾𑐎 𑐳𑐵𑐩𑐵𑐖𑐶𑐎 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐟: 𑐐𑐠𑐣 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸:, 𑐮𑐶𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐾𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐩𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐟 𑐩𑐵𑑃 – 𑐨𑐵𑐫𑑂 𑐳𑑂𑐫𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐎𑐺𑐟𑐶 𑐩𑑂𑐰𑐵𑐎𑐵 𑐟𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸𑐣𑐶𑐟𑐷𑑄 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐣𑐏:𑐔𑐏: 𑐴𑐣𑐾𑐐𑐸:, 𑐳𑐨𑐵 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐩𑐾𑐮𑐣 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸, 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐎𑐵𑐬, 𑐨𑐵𑐲𑐵 𑐤𑑂𑐫𑐮𑐸𑐰𑐵 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐟 𑐐𑐸𑐴𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐫𑐵𑐫𑐾𑐐𑐸 𑐖𑑂𑐫𑐵:𑐏𑑄 𑐖𑐸𑐫𑐵 𑐔𑑂𑐰𑑀𑑄𑐐𑐸𑐡𑐸:! 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵: 𑐥𑐶𑐣𑑂𑐫𑐾 𑐡𑐎𑑂𑐳𑐶𑐧𑐫𑐾 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑑂𑐮𑐵𑐎𑑂𑐎 𑐀𑐩𑐾𑐬𑐶𑐎𑐵𑑄 (Dallas, Texas, USA) 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐨𑐵𑐳𑑄 𑐬𑐾𑐜𑐶𑐫𑑀 𑐎𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫𑐎𑑂𑐬𑐩 𑐗𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐳: 𑐥𑐶𑐡𑑂𑐣𑑂𑐐𑐸 𑐏:, 𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵: 𑐰𑐶𑐖𑑂𑐘𑐵𑐣 (Newaa Vijnyan, The Journal of Newar studies, Portland, USA) 𑐰 𑐮𑐳𑐎𑐸𑐳 𑐥𑑁 (𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵:𑐀𑐬𑑂𑐐𑐣𑐵𑐃𑐖𑐾𑐳𑐣 𑐀𑐩𑐾𑐬𑐶𑐎𑐵 𑐫𑐵 𑐡𑑄𑐫 𑐥𑑁), 𑐧𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐚𑑄 𑐩𑐟𑐶𑐣𑐵 𑐳𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐮𑐵 𑐥𑑁 𑐰 𑐐𑐸𑐛𑐶 𑐡𑑄𑐫 𑐥𑑁 (𑐥𑐵𑐳𑐵 𑐥𑐸𑐔: 𑐐𑐸𑐛𑐶, 𑐰𑐶𑐮𑐵𑐃𑐚), 𑐤𑐵𑐥𑐵𑐣𑑂𑐐𑐸 TV 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑑀𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐩 𑐀𑐳𑑂𑐚𑑂𑐬𑐾𑐮𑐶𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑑄 𑐥𑑂𑐬𑐱𑐵𑐬𑐞 𑐖𑐸𑐐𑐸, 𑐁𑐡𑐶 𑐃𑐟𑑂𑐫𑐵𑐡𑐷 𑑋
𑐳𑐣𑑂𑐡𑐬𑑂𑐨 𑐐𑑂𑐬𑐣𑑂𑐠 𑐳𑐸𑐔𑐷 :-

1) Bista, Dorbahadur, 1976 (1967)
People of Nepal, Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, page 16
2) Dr. Regmi, Dinesh Chandra, VS 2048/ 1991
Purlekhana Paricaya – Nepalese Paleography in Nepali: Page 102
3) Dr. Regmi, Dinesh Chandra, VS 2048/ 1991
Purlekhana Paricaya – Nepalese Paleography in Nepali: Page 102
4) Kamal Prakash Malla 1990
Earliest Dated Document in Nepal Bhasha: The Palm Leaf from Uku Bahah N.S. 235/1114 AD, Kailas 16 (1-2): 15-261982 (𑐄𑐎𑐸𑐧𑐵𑐴𑐵:𑐫𑐵 𑐟𑐵𑐡𑑂𑐥𑐟𑑂𑐬)
Classical Newari Literature: A Sketch, Kathmandu: Educationl Enterprise
An Inscription dated 293 Nepal Era in Nepal Bhasha, Published in Nepal Vol.20 (2) pp 31-4
5) 𑐢𑐣𑐧𑐖𑑂𑐬 𑐧𑐖𑑂𑐬𑐵𑐔𑐵𑐬𑑂𑐫 𑐰 𑐖𑐐𑐡𑐷𑐱 𑐬𑐾𑐐𑑂𑐩𑐷 𑐀𑐨𑐷𑐮𑐾𑐏𑐶𑐫 𑐳𑐬𑑂𑐰𑐾𑐎𑑂𑐲𑐞 𑐰𑐶𑐰𑐬𑐞 -𑑑, 𑐟𑑂𑐬𑐶.𑐰𑐶. 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐟𑐠𑐵 𑐊𑐱𑐶𑐫𑐵𑐮𑐷 𑐀𑐢𑑂𑐫𑐫𑐣 𑐳𑑄𑐳𑑂𑐠𑐵𑐣 ESR – 1, An Earlist Newari Inscription – p. 3
6) Hans Jorgensen 1936
A Dictionary of the Classical Newari, 1936; A Grammar of Classical Newari
7) Christopher I. Beckwith 2002
Medival Tibeto-Burman Languages Page 4
8) http://www.nepalisamachar.com/?p=9367
Nepal: Geschenk der Götter (Nepal Gifts of the Gods), by Hans-Georg Behr
http://newah.lefora.com/2010/01/11/the-fall-of-newah-kingdom/
9) Siegfried Lienhard with colalaboration of Thakurlal Manandhar 1988
Nepalese Manuscripts Part 1: Nevari and Sanskrit, Page XI (Introduction)
Tuladhar, Mandas, 1981 (Kashi Nath Tamot editor)
Pulangu mya Muna (A collection of Old Songs in Nepalbhasa 𑐥𑐸𑐮𑐵𑑄𑐐𑐸 𑐩𑑂𑐫𑐾)
10) Colonel Kirkpatrick (W.) 1811 (Reprint 1975)
An Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul, being the substance of observations made during a mission to that country in the year 1793 (Newari vocabulary on page 221 – 249)
11) Hodson, B.H. 1874 (Reprint 1972)
Essays on the Languages, Literature and Religion of Nepal and Tibet, Amsterdam, pp.120
12) Wright, Daniel (Ed.), 1877 (reprint 1958)
History of Nepal: With An Introductory Sketch of The Country and People Of Nepal.Translated from Parbatiya by Munshi Shew Shunker Singh and Pandit Sri Gunanand.
With an Introductory Sketch of the Country and the People of Nepal by the Editor
(Newari vocabulary on page 300 and Newari songs on page 306)
13) Siegfried Lienhard 1974 (𑐣𑐾𑐰𑐵𑐬𑐶 – 𑐐𑐷𑐟𑐶𑐩𑑄𑐖𑐬𑐷)
Nevarigitimanjari: Religious and Secular Poetry of the Nevars of the Kathmandu Valley. Stockholm Oriental Studies, vol.10 (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1974).

𑐮𑐶𑐢𑑄𑐳𑐵 𑐳𑐦𑐹 :-

1) Acharya, Baburam 1953
Nepal Nevar ra Nevar Bhasa (Nepal, Newar and Newar Language in Nepali, published in Nepal Sanskritic Parishad Vol.1 No. 1: 1-16)
2) Anderson, Marry, Festival of Nepal
3) Bendall, C. 1883, Catalogue of the Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Cambridge University Library, 1886, A Journey of Literary and Archaeological Research in Nepal and Northern India 1903, A History of Nepal and Surrounding Kingdoms (1000-1600)
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, JASB:LXXII 1903, pp. 1-32
4) Brown, Percy, 1912 Picturesque Nepal, London
5) Chattopadhya, Khshitis Prasad 1980 (First Published 1923)
An Essay on the History of Newar Culture, Kathmandu
(Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal New Series XIX, 1923 no.10 pp 465-560)
6) Dharmacharyya, Dharma Aditya, 1927 (Nepal Sambat 1047)
Nepalese Language Literature: A short History and bibliography of Nepalbhasa or Nepalese (Nepalbhasha Sahitya Mandal Phamphlet Series 1, Calcutta)
7) Doherty, Victor S. 1978 Notes on the Origins of the Newars of the Valley of Nepal (Himalayan Anthropology, The Hague)
8) Furer Haimendorf, Christoph Von 1956 Elements of Newar Social Structures,
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute pp.15-38
9) Gellner, David N.
1986 Language, Caste, Religion and Territory : Newar Identity Ancient and Modern Archives European Sociology 27:102-148
1992 Monk, Householder and Tantric Prist: Newar Buddhism and its Hierchy of Ritual
10) Giuseppe, Father, 1794 (1970)
Account of the Kingdom of Nepal, Asiatic Researches Vol. II, pp 241-253
11) Hamilton, F. 1819 An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal. Edinburgh, 1819
12) Hodson, Brian H.
1828, A Sketch of Buddhism Derived from the Boudha Scriptures of Nepal. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. II: 222ff
1874 (1971) Essay on Language, Literature and Religion of Nepal and Tibet, Varanashi, Bharat bharati (originally published in London)
13) Hridaya, Chitadhar 1982
Jhigu Sahitya (Our Literature 𑐗𑐶𑐐𑐸 𑐳𑐵𑐴𑐶𑐟𑑂𑐫) in Nepal Bhasha, Nepal Bhasha Parishad
14) Jorgensen, Hans
1936, A Dictionary of the Classical Newari, Copenhagen: Munksgaard
1941, A Grammar of the Classical Newari, Copenhagen: Munksgaard
15) Kansakar, T, 1997: 11-37
The Newar Language: A Profile (Newah Vijnana: A Journal of Newar Studies Vol.1-1)
16) Landon, Perceval, 1928, Nepal. 2 vols. London
17) Levi, Sylvain, Paris, 1905-1908
Le Nepal. Etude historique d’un royaume hindou. 3 vols (Annales du Musee Guimet 17-19)
18) Malla, Kamal P., 1981
Linguistic Archaeology of the Nepal Valley: A Preliminary Report, Kailash, VIII:I-2.5-23
19) Mitra, Rajendralala, 1882
The Sanskrit Buddhist Literature of Nepal. (Calcutta reprint 1971)
20) Oldfield, H. A., 1880 (1978)
Sketches from Nipal, 2 vols. London
21) Sastri, Pandit Haraprasad (Ed.), 1894
The Vrihat Svayambhu Puranam containing the traditions of the Svayambhu Kshetra in Nepal 𑐧𑐺𑐴𑐟 𑐱𑑂𑐰𑑀𑐫𑐩𑑂𑐨𑐸 𑐥𑐸𑐬𑐵𑐞 (Bibliotheca Indica, New Series 837 Calcutta)
22) Levi, Sylvain, 1905-08
Le Nepal: Etude historique d’un royaume hindou. Paris. Vols 3 http://himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/collections/journals/kailash/pdf/kailash_03_01_01.pdf
23) Regmi, Jagadish Chandra, 1978
Newari Sanskriti ko Ruparekha (A Glimps of Newari Culture) Nepal Antiquary
24) Tamot, Kashi Nath 1977
N.S. 293 yaa Chagu Abhilekh (𑐣𑐾.𑐳𑑄.𑑒𑑙𑑓 𑐫𑐵 𑐕𑐐𑐸 𑐀𑐨𑐶𑐮𑐾𑐏)
25) Von Furer-Haimendorf, C. 1956
Elements of Newar Social Structure, Journal of Royal Archeological Society of Nepal
86 part 2: 15-38
Jhigu Saa: First Nepal Bhasa Radio Program from Dallas, Texas, USA:-

Guthi, Pasa Puchah Guthi, UK: – www.ppguk.org

Laskus, Newaa Organisation of America: – www.newa.org

Matina, info.matina@yahoo.co.uk

The Journal of newar Studies :-http://himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/collections/journals/jns/pdf/JNS_01.pdf

Newar Buddhist Vihar in Portland, Oreagon, USA
𑐣𑑂𑐳𑐶𑐎𑐵